How to handle topography in practical geoid determination: three examples

O.C.D. Omang, René Forsberg

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Three different methods of handling topography in geoid determination were investigated. The first two methods employ the residual terrain model (RTM) remove-restore technique, yielding the quasi-geoid, whereas the third method uses the classical Helmert condensation method, yielding the geoid. All three methods were used with the geopotential model Earth Gravity Model (1996) (EGM96) as a reference, and the results were compared to precise global positioning system (GPS) levelling networks in Scandinavia. An investigation of the Helmert method, focusing on the different types of indirect effects and their effects on the geoid, was also carried out. The three different methods used produce almost identical results at the 5-cm level, when compared to the GPS levelling networks. However, small systematic differences existed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Geodesy
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)458-466
Publication statusPublished - 2000


  • RTM
  • GPS/levelling
  • indirect effects
  • Helmert
  • terrain effects
  • geoid
  • gravity


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