Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is a combustion concept which offers simultaneous reductions in both NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines. In light of increasingly stringent diesel emissions limits, research efforts have been invested into HCCI combustion as an alternative to conventional diesel combustion. This paper reviews the implementation of HCCI combustion in direct injection diesel engines using early, multiple and late injection strategies. Governing factors in HCCI operations such as injector characteristics, injection pressure, piston bowl geometry, compression ratio, intake charge temperature, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and supercharging or turbocharging are discussed in this review. The effects of design and operating parameters on HCCI diesel emissions, particularly NOx and soot, are also investigated. For each of these parameters, the theories are discussed in conjunction with comparative evaluation of studies reported in the specialised literature.