Summertime nitric acid concentrations over a deciduous forest in the midwestern United States are reported, which range between 0.36 and 3.3 mug m(-3). Fluxes to the forest are computed using the relaxed eddy accumulation technique and gradient methods. In accord with previous studies, the results indicate substantial uncertainties in the gradient-based calculations. The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) derived fluxes are physically reasonable and are shown to be of similar magnitude to dry deposition estimates from gradient sampling. The REA derived mean deposition velocity is approximately 3 cm s(-1), which is also comparable to growing season estimates derived by Meyers et al. for a similar deciduous forest. Occasional inverted concentration gradients and fluxes are observed but most are not statistically significant. Data are also presented that indicate substantial through canopy penetration of nitric acid. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.