High-fidelity linear time-invariant model of a smart rotor with adaptive trailing edge flaps

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2016Researchpeer-review

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High-fidelity linear time-invariant model of a smart rotor with adaptive trailing edge flaps. / Bergami, Leonardo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig.

In: Wind Energy, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2017, p. 431–447.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article – Annual report year: 2016Researchpeer-review

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@article{36d1ea6e68414f46b624e15639157440,
title = "High-fidelity linear time-invariant model of a smart rotor with adaptive trailing edge flaps",
abstract = "A high-fidelity linear time-invariant model of the aero-servo-elastic response of a wind turbine with trailing-edge flaps is presented and used for systematic tuning of an individual flap controller. The model includes the quasi-steady aerodynamic effects of trailing-edge flaps on wind turbine blades and is integrated in the linear aeroelastic code HAWCStab2. The dynamic response predicted by the linear model is validated against non-linear simulations, and the quasi-steady assumption does not cause any significant response bias for flap deflection with frequencies up to 2-3 Hz. The linear aero-servo-elastic model support the design, systematic tuning and model synthesis of smart rotor control systems. As an example application, the gains of an individual flap controller are tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method for the full-order poles. The flap controller is based on feedback of inverse Coleman transformed and low-pass filtered flapwise blade root moments to the cyclic flap angles through two proportional-integral controllers. The load alleviation potential of the active flap control, anticipated by the frequency response of the linear closed-loop model, is also confirmed by non-linear time simulations. The simulations report reductions of lifetime fatigue damage up to 17{\%} at the blade root and up to 4{\%} at the tower bottom.",
keywords = "Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment, Active fatigue damage load alleviation, Adaptive trailing edge flaps, Linear time-invariant (LTI) model, Linearized aero-servo-elastic modeling, Ziegler-Nichols tuning, Aerodynamics, Aeroelasticity, Control equipment, Control system synthesis, Fatigue damage, Flaps, Frequency response, Inverse problems, Linear control systems, Low pass filters, Time varying control systems, Turbomachine blades, Two term control systems, Wind turbines, Elastic modeling, Linear time invariant model, Load alleviation, Trailing edge flaps, Controllers",
author = "Leonardo Bergami and Hansen, {Morten Hartvig}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1002/we.2014",
language = "English",
volume = "20",
pages = "431–447",
journal = "Wind Energy",
issn = "1095-4244",
publisher = "JohnWiley & Sons Ltd.",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - High-fidelity linear time-invariant model of a smart rotor with adaptive trailing edge flaps

AU - Bergami, Leonardo

AU - Hansen, Morten Hartvig

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - A high-fidelity linear time-invariant model of the aero-servo-elastic response of a wind turbine with trailing-edge flaps is presented and used for systematic tuning of an individual flap controller. The model includes the quasi-steady aerodynamic effects of trailing-edge flaps on wind turbine blades and is integrated in the linear aeroelastic code HAWCStab2. The dynamic response predicted by the linear model is validated against non-linear simulations, and the quasi-steady assumption does not cause any significant response bias for flap deflection with frequencies up to 2-3 Hz. The linear aero-servo-elastic model support the design, systematic tuning and model synthesis of smart rotor control systems. As an example application, the gains of an individual flap controller are tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method for the full-order poles. The flap controller is based on feedback of inverse Coleman transformed and low-pass filtered flapwise blade root moments to the cyclic flap angles through two proportional-integral controllers. The load alleviation potential of the active flap control, anticipated by the frequency response of the linear closed-loop model, is also confirmed by non-linear time simulations. The simulations report reductions of lifetime fatigue damage up to 17% at the blade root and up to 4% at the tower bottom.

AB - A high-fidelity linear time-invariant model of the aero-servo-elastic response of a wind turbine with trailing-edge flaps is presented and used for systematic tuning of an individual flap controller. The model includes the quasi-steady aerodynamic effects of trailing-edge flaps on wind turbine blades and is integrated in the linear aeroelastic code HAWCStab2. The dynamic response predicted by the linear model is validated against non-linear simulations, and the quasi-steady assumption does not cause any significant response bias for flap deflection with frequencies up to 2-3 Hz. The linear aero-servo-elastic model support the design, systematic tuning and model synthesis of smart rotor control systems. As an example application, the gains of an individual flap controller are tuned using the Ziegler-Nichols method for the full-order poles. The flap controller is based on feedback of inverse Coleman transformed and low-pass filtered flapwise blade root moments to the cyclic flap angles through two proportional-integral controllers. The load alleviation potential of the active flap control, anticipated by the frequency response of the linear closed-loop model, is also confirmed by non-linear time simulations. The simulations report reductions of lifetime fatigue damage up to 17% at the blade root and up to 4% at the tower bottom.

KW - Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

KW - Active fatigue damage load alleviation

KW - Adaptive trailing edge flaps

KW - Linear time-invariant (LTI) model

KW - Linearized aero-servo-elastic modeling

KW - Ziegler-Nichols tuning

KW - Aerodynamics

KW - Aeroelasticity

KW - Control equipment

KW - Control system synthesis

KW - Fatigue damage

KW - Flaps

KW - Frequency response

KW - Inverse problems

KW - Linear control systems

KW - Low pass filters

KW - Time varying control systems

KW - Turbomachine blades

KW - Two term control systems

KW - Wind turbines

KW - Elastic modeling

KW - Linear time invariant model

KW - Load alleviation

KW - Trailing edge flaps

KW - Controllers

U2 - 10.1002/we.2014

DO - 10.1002/we.2014

M3 - Journal article

VL - 20

SP - 431

EP - 447

JO - Wind Energy

JF - Wind Energy

SN - 1095-4244

IS - 3

ER -