High value add bio-based low-carbon materials: Conversion processes and circular economy

Raouf AliAkbari, Mohammad Hadi Ghasemi, Nariman Neekzad, Elaheh Kowsari*, Seeram Ramakrishna*, Mehdi Mehrali, Yousef Marfavi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


High value-added materials are usually made from low-value materials or wastes. Producing these materials as by-products along with the main products of any industry or project can multiply the financial benefits of economic processes. Many of these processes today use fossil fuels that have two major problems: non-renewability and environmental pollution. To make greener these economic processes, efforts are being made today to use sustainable raw materials. Also, the use of biomaterials in the production of high-value materials is essential to achieve a low-carbon and circular economy. In this comprehensive review, the production processes of high value-added materials are summarized in simple forms. In addition to reviewing processes, the most important raw materials for the production of these valuable materials have also been widely discussed. As two very important issues, the relationship between the food supply chain and conversion of its waste into high value-added materials as well as the conversion of carbon dioxide into high-value materials has also been investigated. Finally, the high potential of using these sustainable materials in a greener economic direction was shown. In general, it can be said that these environmentally friendly materials must also make economic progress. However, recent advances have been made to reduce the cost of producing some of these materials. To have a greener economy in the future, the number of processes and production materials that are economically viable must increase. The use of waste from the food supply chain must also be given significant consideration. The production of valuable materials from CO2 is also essential.
Original languageEnglish
Article number126101
JournalJournal of cleaner production
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Biomass processing
  • Renewable energy sources
  • Biomass conversion processes
  • Low-carbon materials
  • Circular economy

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