High-temperature lead-free solder alternatives

Vivek Chidambaram Nachiappan, Jesper Henri Hattel, John Hald

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


For lead-free solders in the high-temperature regime, unfortunately, a limited number of alloying systems are available. These are Bi based alloys, gold involving alloys and Zn–Al based alloys. Based on these systems, possible candidate alloys were designed to have a melting range between 270°C and 350°C. Each has its own superior characteristics as well as some drawbacks however none of them can fulfill all the requirements to replace the current high-lead content solders. Even the alternative technologies that are currently being developed cannot address several critical issues of high-temperature soldering. Therefore, further research and development of high-temperature lead-free soldering is obviously needed.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMicroelectronic Engineering
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)981-989
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Die-attaching
  • Soft solder
  • Thermal aging
  • High-lead content solders
  • Intermetallics


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