This paper describes a hierarchical computational procedure for optimizing material distribution as well as the local material properties of mechanical elements. The local properties are designed using a topology design approach, leading to single scale microstructures, which may be restricted in various ways, based on design and manufacturing criteria. Implementation issues are also discussed and computational results illustrate the nature of the procedure.
Rodrigues, H. C., Guedes, J. M., & Bendsøe, M. P. (2002). Hierarchical Optimization of Material and Structure. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 24(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00158-002-0209-z