An ADMM-based hierarchical optimal active power control (HOAPC) scheme is proposed for synthetic inertial response of large-scale wind farms. The proposed scheme coordinates the active power outputs of wind turbines (WTs) inside the wind farm during the synthetic inertial response process, aiming to minimize the differences in the rotor speed of the WTs and the wind energy loss caused by the decrease in the rotor speed of the WTs. The optimal control is formulated based on the model predictive control (MPC) according to the local WT wind conditions. A hierarchical solution method based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is developed to solve the MPC-based optimization problem in a fast way without the loss of optimality. With the HOAPC, the wind farm controller guarantees the rotor speed stability of WTs inside the wind farm and reduces the wind energy losses during the synthetic inertial response process. Moreover, the optimization problem is decomposed to several optimization subproblems solved in parallel. As such, the computation burden of the wind farm central controller is significantly reduced, and the protection of the information privacy of the wind farm is improved. A wind farm with 100 WTs was used to validate the proposed HOAPC scheme.
- Alternating direction method of multiplier (ADMM)
- Hierarchical control, model predictive control (MPC)
- Synthetic inertial response
- Wind farm