Hierarchical Frequency Control of Hybrid Power Plants Using Frequency Response Observer

Qian Long*, Kaushik Das, Poul Sørensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Frequency control (FC) enables utility-scale grid-connected hybrid power plants (HPPs) to operate in compliance with grid code requirements while to capture value streams from provision of frequency control services (FCSs). In this paper, a novel hierarchical FC approach is proposed to allow HPPs to provide three types of FCSs, namely fast frequency response (FFR), frequency containment response (FCR) and frequency restoration response (FRR). To accommodate state-of-the-art fast FC, controllers for fast FCSs, such as FFR and FCR, are implemented at asset controllers, while controllers for slow FCSs like FRR are implemented at plant controllers or the HPP controller (HPPC). Control counteraction issue, which arises across control hierarchy, is then discussed. To solve this issue, an innovative frequency response observer (FROB) is proposed. Inspired by the concept of disturbance observer (DOB), FROB at plant controllers and the HPPC accurately estimates frequency response initiated at asset controllers, and the obtained estimation is used for control compensation at plant controllers and the HPPC to avoid control counteraction. This scheme achieves robust performance even when there are system uncertainties existing in HPPs, such as parameter uncertainty, unknown control malfunction, and time-varying communication delays. The proposed approach is implemented in a power system dynamic model in MATLAB/Simulink to highlight its effectiveness and robustness.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)504-515
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Hierarchial frequency control
  • Hybrid power plants
  • Fast frequency response
  • Disturbance observers
  • Frequency response observers


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