A hierarchical active power control (HAPC) scheme based on the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is proposed for doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farms with distributed energy storage systems (ESSs). The wind farm controller optimizes the active power references for DFIG-based wind turbines (WTs) and ESSs inside the wind farm, and the aim is to minimize fatigue loads by minimizing variations of thrust force and shaft torque of WTs while tracking the dispatch command from the transmission system operator (TSO). Moreover, ESSs management is considered in the central controller and WT controllers. The solution method based on the ADMM with fast convergence is used to solve the model predictive control (MPC) optimization problem in a hierarchical manner without loss of optimality. With the ADMM, the control task is distributed to WT controllers, and the computation burden of the central wind farm controller can be efficiently reduced. A wind farm with 30 DFIG WTs was used to validate the control performance of the proposed HAPC scheme.
- Fatigue loads
- Wind farm