Small solar domestic hot water systems are best designed as low flow systems based on vertical mantle tanks. Theoretical investigations of the heat transfer in differently designed vertical mantle tanks during different operation conditions have been carried out. The investigations are based on calculations with a CFD-model, which has earlier been validated by means of experiments. The CFD-model is used to determine the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the walls surrounding the mantle in all levels of the mantle as well as the heat transfer between the wall of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water in all levels of the tank. The heat transfer analysis showed that the heat transfer near the mantle inlet port between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the walls surrounding the mantle is in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from the inlet increases, natural convection starts to dominate. The heat transfer between the wall of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water is governed by natural convection. The results of the CFD-calculations are used to determine improved heat transfer correlations based on dimensionless analysis. The heat transfer determined by these correlations is compared to the heat transfer determined by the CFD-calculations. The comparisons showed a good agreement between the heat transfer determined by the heat transfer correlations and the heat transfer determined by CFD-calculations. Consequently, the heat transfer correlations are suitable as input for a detailed simulation model for mantle tanks. The heat transfer correlations determined in this study are somewhat different from previous reported heat transfer correlations. The reason is that this study includes more mantle tank designs and operation conditions than considered previously.
|Title of host publication||Proceedings of the 2005 Solar World Congress|
|Publication status||Published - 2005|
|Event||ISES 2005 Solar World Congress: Bringing Water to the World - Orlando, FL, United States|
Duration: 6 Aug 2005 → 12 Aug 2005
|Conference||ISES 2005 Solar World Congress|
|Period||06/08/2005 → 12/08/2005|