Hearing loss in relation to sound exposure of professional symphony orchestra musicians

J. H. Schmidt, E. R. Pedersen, H. M. Paarup, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, T Andersen, T. Poulsen, Jacob Bælum

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate the hearing status of classical symphony orchestra musicians and (2) investigate the hypothesis that occupational sound exposure of symphony orchestra musicians leads to elevated hearing thresholds. DESIGN: The study population comprised all the musicians from five symphony orchestras. Questionnaires were filled in by 337 subjects, and 212 subjects performed an audiometric test. For a group of 182 musicians (363 ears) the results of the audiometry was analyzed in relation to the individual exposure, which was estimated on the basis of sound measurements and questionnaire data regarding the exposure time. The mean hearing threshold at the frequencies 3, 4, and 6 kHz, corrected for age and sex, was used as outcome. RESULTS: The musician ears with the highest exposure (29 of 363) had an additional threshold shift of 6.3 dB compared with the 238 ears with lowest exposure. The observed hearing loss of musicians was smaller compared with the noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) predicted from ISO1999. A remaining confounding effect of age after ISO7029 age corrections could be observed to explain the difference in observed and predicted NIPTS. However, the observed hearing loss difference between the left and the right ear of musicians was 2.5 dB (95% confidence interval 1.5-3.6), which was similar to the NIPTS predicted from ISO1999. Most of the musicians had better hearing at 3, 4, and 6 kHz for age than expected, however, 29 ears with the highest exposure above 90.4 dBA with a mean exposure time of 41.7 years had significantly elevated hearing thresholds. Trumpet players and the left ear of first violinists had significantly elevated hearing thresholds compared with other musicians. CONCLUSION: Most of the symphony orchestra musicians had better hearing than expected but they had a work-related risk of developing additional noise-induced hearing loss. The additional NITPS of the left ear compared with the right ear was at the expected level based on the cumulated sound exposure and ISO1999, indicating that performing music may induce hearing loss to the same extent as industrial noise.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEar and Hearing
Volume35
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)448-460
ISSN0196-0202
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Speech and Hearing
  • Audiometry
  • Hearing loss
  • Musicians
  • Noise
  • Sound exposure

Cite this

Schmidt, J. H., Pedersen, E. R., Paarup, H. M., Christensen-Dalsgaard, J., Andersen, T., Poulsen, T., & Bælum, J. (2014). Hearing loss in relation to sound exposure of professional symphony orchestra musicians. Ear and Hearing, 35(4), 448-460. https://doi.org/10.1097/aud.0000000000000029
Schmidt, J. H. ; Pedersen, E. R. ; Paarup, H. M. ; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob ; Andersen, T ; Poulsen, T. ; Bælum, Jacob. / Hearing loss in relation to sound exposure of professional symphony orchestra musicians. In: Ear and Hearing. 2014 ; Vol. 35, No. 4. pp. 448-460.
@article{bec1fae5633b4ee88c62381d1197d10f,
title = "Hearing loss in relation to sound exposure of professional symphony orchestra musicians",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate the hearing status of classical symphony orchestra musicians and (2) investigate the hypothesis that occupational sound exposure of symphony orchestra musicians leads to elevated hearing thresholds. DESIGN: The study population comprised all the musicians from five symphony orchestras. Questionnaires were filled in by 337 subjects, and 212 subjects performed an audiometric test. For a group of 182 musicians (363 ears) the results of the audiometry was analyzed in relation to the individual exposure, which was estimated on the basis of sound measurements and questionnaire data regarding the exposure time. The mean hearing threshold at the frequencies 3, 4, and 6 kHz, corrected for age and sex, was used as outcome. RESULTS: The musician ears with the highest exposure (29 of 363) had an additional threshold shift of 6.3 dB compared with the 238 ears with lowest exposure. The observed hearing loss of musicians was smaller compared with the noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) predicted from ISO1999. A remaining confounding effect of age after ISO7029 age corrections could be observed to explain the difference in observed and predicted NIPTS. However, the observed hearing loss difference between the left and the right ear of musicians was 2.5 dB (95{\%} confidence interval 1.5-3.6), which was similar to the NIPTS predicted from ISO1999. Most of the musicians had better hearing at 3, 4, and 6 kHz for age than expected, however, 29 ears with the highest exposure above 90.4 dBA with a mean exposure time of 41.7 years had significantly elevated hearing thresholds. Trumpet players and the left ear of first violinists had significantly elevated hearing thresholds compared with other musicians. CONCLUSION: Most of the symphony orchestra musicians had better hearing than expected but they had a work-related risk of developing additional noise-induced hearing loss. The additional NITPS of the left ear compared with the right ear was at the expected level based on the cumulated sound exposure and ISO1999, indicating that performing music may induce hearing loss to the same extent as industrial noise.",
keywords = "Otorhinolaryngology, Speech and Hearing, Audiometry, Hearing loss, Musicians, Noise, Sound exposure",
author = "Schmidt, {J. H.} and Pedersen, {E. R.} and Paarup, {H. M.} and Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard and T Andersen and T. Poulsen and Jacob B{\ae}lum",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1097/aud.0000000000000029",
language = "English",
volume = "35",
pages = "448--460",
journal = "Ear and Hearing",
issn = "0196-0202",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams & Wilkins",
number = "4",

}

Schmidt, JH, Pedersen, ER, Paarup, HM, Christensen-Dalsgaard, J, Andersen, T, Poulsen, T & Bælum, J 2014, 'Hearing loss in relation to sound exposure of professional symphony orchestra musicians', Ear and Hearing, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 448-460. https://doi.org/10.1097/aud.0000000000000029

Hearing loss in relation to sound exposure of professional symphony orchestra musicians. / Schmidt, J. H. ; Pedersen, E. R.; Paarup, H. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Andersen, T; Poulsen, T.; Bælum, Jacob.

In: Ear and Hearing, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2014, p. 448-460.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hearing loss in relation to sound exposure of professional symphony orchestra musicians

AU - Schmidt, J. H.

AU - Pedersen, E. R.

AU - Paarup, H. M.

AU - Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

AU - Andersen, T

AU - Poulsen, T.

AU - Bælum, Jacob

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate the hearing status of classical symphony orchestra musicians and (2) investigate the hypothesis that occupational sound exposure of symphony orchestra musicians leads to elevated hearing thresholds. DESIGN: The study population comprised all the musicians from five symphony orchestras. Questionnaires were filled in by 337 subjects, and 212 subjects performed an audiometric test. For a group of 182 musicians (363 ears) the results of the audiometry was analyzed in relation to the individual exposure, which was estimated on the basis of sound measurements and questionnaire data regarding the exposure time. The mean hearing threshold at the frequencies 3, 4, and 6 kHz, corrected for age and sex, was used as outcome. RESULTS: The musician ears with the highest exposure (29 of 363) had an additional threshold shift of 6.3 dB compared with the 238 ears with lowest exposure. The observed hearing loss of musicians was smaller compared with the noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) predicted from ISO1999. A remaining confounding effect of age after ISO7029 age corrections could be observed to explain the difference in observed and predicted NIPTS. However, the observed hearing loss difference between the left and the right ear of musicians was 2.5 dB (95% confidence interval 1.5-3.6), which was similar to the NIPTS predicted from ISO1999. Most of the musicians had better hearing at 3, 4, and 6 kHz for age than expected, however, 29 ears with the highest exposure above 90.4 dBA with a mean exposure time of 41.7 years had significantly elevated hearing thresholds. Trumpet players and the left ear of first violinists had significantly elevated hearing thresholds compared with other musicians. CONCLUSION: Most of the symphony orchestra musicians had better hearing than expected but they had a work-related risk of developing additional noise-induced hearing loss. The additional NITPS of the left ear compared with the right ear was at the expected level based on the cumulated sound exposure and ISO1999, indicating that performing music may induce hearing loss to the same extent as industrial noise.

AB - OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate the hearing status of classical symphony orchestra musicians and (2) investigate the hypothesis that occupational sound exposure of symphony orchestra musicians leads to elevated hearing thresholds. DESIGN: The study population comprised all the musicians from five symphony orchestras. Questionnaires were filled in by 337 subjects, and 212 subjects performed an audiometric test. For a group of 182 musicians (363 ears) the results of the audiometry was analyzed in relation to the individual exposure, which was estimated on the basis of sound measurements and questionnaire data regarding the exposure time. The mean hearing threshold at the frequencies 3, 4, and 6 kHz, corrected for age and sex, was used as outcome. RESULTS: The musician ears with the highest exposure (29 of 363) had an additional threshold shift of 6.3 dB compared with the 238 ears with lowest exposure. The observed hearing loss of musicians was smaller compared with the noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) predicted from ISO1999. A remaining confounding effect of age after ISO7029 age corrections could be observed to explain the difference in observed and predicted NIPTS. However, the observed hearing loss difference between the left and the right ear of musicians was 2.5 dB (95% confidence interval 1.5-3.6), which was similar to the NIPTS predicted from ISO1999. Most of the musicians had better hearing at 3, 4, and 6 kHz for age than expected, however, 29 ears with the highest exposure above 90.4 dBA with a mean exposure time of 41.7 years had significantly elevated hearing thresholds. Trumpet players and the left ear of first violinists had significantly elevated hearing thresholds compared with other musicians. CONCLUSION: Most of the symphony orchestra musicians had better hearing than expected but they had a work-related risk of developing additional noise-induced hearing loss. The additional NITPS of the left ear compared with the right ear was at the expected level based on the cumulated sound exposure and ISO1999, indicating that performing music may induce hearing loss to the same extent as industrial noise.

KW - Otorhinolaryngology

KW - Speech and Hearing

KW - Audiometry

KW - Hearing loss

KW - Musicians

KW - Noise

KW - Sound exposure

U2 - 10.1097/aud.0000000000000029

DO - 10.1097/aud.0000000000000029

M3 - Journal article

VL - 35

SP - 448

EP - 460

JO - Ear and Hearing

JF - Ear and Hearing

SN - 0196-0202

IS - 4

ER -

Schmidt JH, Pedersen ER, Paarup HM, Christensen-Dalsgaard J, Andersen T, Poulsen T et al. Hearing loss in relation to sound exposure of professional symphony orchestra musicians. Ear and Hearing. 2014;35(4):448-460. https://doi.org/10.1097/aud.0000000000000029