Hardening evolution of geopolymers from setting to equilibrium: A review

Navid Ranjbar*, Carsten Kuenzel*, Jon Spangenberg, Mehdi Mehrali

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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In recent years, environmentally sustainable geopolymers have been widely investigated to obtain comparable mechanical properties with Portland cement, and they are now close to being in a position where they can substitute parts of the cement production utilized in construction. However, in order for geopolymers to reach their full potential, it is crucial to understand the influence of various parameters (e.g., particle size, treatment of precursor, chemical composition) on the hardening evolution at earlier ages of the pastes and the resulting final mechanical strength of the set system. Hence, this paper reviews known factors that influence the setting time of fresh geopolymers and discusses the underlying chemical- and physical-mechanisms of each parameter. Next to this, the interconnection between the setting time and mechanical strength is discussed. This will provide a platform for researchers and engineers to understand the hardening evolution of geopolymers in a broader range.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103729
JournalCement and Concrete Composites
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


  • Acceleration
  • Compressive strength
  • Geopolymer
  • Retardation
  • Setting time


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