Ground-based Optical Transmission Spectroscopy of the Nearby Terrestrial Exoplanet LTT 1445Ab

Hannah Diamond-Lowe*, João M. Mendonça, David Charbonneau, Lars A. Buchhave

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Nearby M-dwarf systems currently offer the most favorable opportunities for spectroscopic investigations of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. The LTT 1445 system is a hierarchical triple of M dwarfs with two known planets orbiting the primary star, LTT 1445A. We observe four transits of the terrestrial world LTT 1445Ab (R = 1.3 R , M = 2.9 M ) at low resolution with Magellan II/LDSS3C. We use the combined flux of the LTT 1445BC pair as a comparison star, marking the first time that an M dwarf is used to remove telluric variability from time-series observations of another M dwarf. We find Hα in emission from both LTT 1445B and C, as well as a flare in one of the data sets from LTT 1445C. These contaminated data are removed from the analysis. We construct a broadband transit light curve of LTT 1445Ab from 620 to 1020 nm. Binned to 3 minute time bins, we achieve an rms of 49 ppm for the combined broadband light curve. We construct a transmission spectrum with 20 spectrophotometric bins each spanning 20 nm and compare it to models of clear, 1× solar composition atmospheres. We rule out this atmospheric case with a surface pressure of 10 bars to 3.2σ confidence, and with a surface pressure of 1 bar to 3.1σ confidence. Upcoming secondary eclipse observations of LTT 1445Ab with the James Webb Space Telescope will further probe the cases of a high-mean-molecular-weight atmosphere, a hazy or cloudy atmosphere, or no atmosphere at all on this terrestrial world.

Original languageEnglish
Article number169
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume165
Issue number4
Number of pages12
ISSN0004-6256
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Exoplanet astronomy
  • Exoplanet atmospheres
  • Exoplanets
  • Extrasolar rocky planets
  • Transmission spectroscopy
  • Spectroscopy
  • Optical astronomy
  • M dwarf stars

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