Grid-forming converters: Sufficient conditions for RMS modeling

George S. Misyris*, Spyros Chatzivasileiadis, Tilman Weckesser

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Time-domain simulations are a critical tool for power system operators. Depending on the instability mechanism under consideration and the system characteristics, such as the time constants of controllers, either phasor or Electro-Magnetic Transient (EMT) models should be employed. On the one hand, EMT models provide a detailed-modeling of the system dynamics, thus increase the reliability of stability analysis; on the other hand, using these models increase the computing time of simulations, slowing down the security assessment process. To decrease computational time, system operators could resort to phasor-mode simulations for a subset of disturbances. This paper investigates the appropriateness of phasor-approximation models on simulating events related to power supply and balance stability when grid-forming converters are employed for providing frequency support. Moreover, it provides sufficient conditions and bounds for the control parameters of a grid-forming converter under which the phase-approximation modeling of the component is still valid. The control design is carried out using a simple transfer function approach. Time-domain simulation are performed to validate the transfer function analysis using different control settings and different line impedance characteristics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107324
JournalElectric Power Systems Research
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Electro-magnetic transient (EMT) model
  • RMS Modeling
  • Voltage source converters (VSCs)
  • Low-inertia systems


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