Graduated characterization method using a multi-well microplate for reducing reactivity of nanoscale zero valent iron materials

Yuhoon Hwang, Apostolos Salatas, Paul D. Mines, Mogens Havsteen Jakobsen, Henrik Rasmus Andersen

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Abstract

Even though nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been intensively studied for the treatment of a plethora of pollutants through reductive reaction, quantification of nZVI reactivity has not yet been standardized. Here, we adapted colorimetric assays for determining reductive activity of nZVI and its composites with other metals. The assay quantifies reduction products to avoid interfering reactions, such as sorption and volatilization. Three different reaction products, ammonium, phenol, and aniline, generated as the result of reduction of nitrate, p-halophenols, and nitrobenzene, respectively, could be quantified using the same reagent for all reactions. The colorimetric assays were further adapted to the 96-well microplate format, thus minimizing sample and reagent use, as well as lowering color development time to 2 h. The substrates showed graduated reactivity and thus reduction potency and kinetics of different materials and reaction mechanism was distinguished. The applicability was successfully proven by determining the reactivity of a commercial nZVI sample, and investigating the effect of nickel content on dehalogenation. Therefore, the suggested reactivity test with different compounds, combined with the use of a multi-well microplate based color assay, promises to be a useful and simple tool in various nZVI related research topics.
Original languageEnglish
JournalApplied Catalysis B: Environmental
Volume181
Pages (from-to)314-320
ISSN0926-3373
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Keywords

  • Nanoscale zero valent iron
  • Indophenol reaction
  • Dehalogenation reactivity
  • Colorimetric assay
  • Multi-well microplate

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