GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission Concept

Estel Cardellach*, Jens Wickert, Rens Baggen, Javier Benito, Adriano Camps, Nuno Catarino, Bertrand Chapron, Andreas Dielacher, Fran Fabra, Greg Flato, Heinrich Fragner, Carolina Gabarro, Christine Gommenginger, Christian Haas, Sean Healy, Manuel Hernandez-Pajares, Per Høeg, Adrian Jaggi, Juha Kainulainen, Shfaqat Abbas KhanNorbert M. K. Lemke, Weiqiang Li, Son V. Nghiem, Nazzareno Pierdicca, Marcos Portabella, Kimmo Rautiainen, Antonio Rius, Ingo Sasgen, Maximilian Semmling, C. K. Shum, Francois Soulat, Andrea K. Steiner, Sebastien Tailhades, Maik Thomas, Roger Vilaseca, Cinzia Zuffada

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

612 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg system (G-TERN) was proposed in response to ESA’s Earth Explorer 9 revised call by a team of 33 multi-disciplinary scientists. The primary objective of the mission is to quantify at high spatio-temporal resolution crucial characteristics, processes and interactions between sea ice, and other Earth system components in order to advance the understanding and prediction of climate change and its impacts on the environment and society. The objective is articulated through three key questions. 1) In a rapidly changing Arctic regime and under the resilient Antarctic sea ice trend, how will highly dynamic forcings and couplings between the various components of the ocean, atmosphere, and cryosphere modify or influence the processes governing the characteristics of the sea ice cover (ice production, growth, deformation, and melt)? 2) What are the impacts of extreme events and feedback mechanisms on sea ice evolution? 3) What are the effects of the cryosphere behaviors, either rapidly changing or resiliently stable, on the global oceanic and atmospheric circulation and mid-latitude extreme events? To contribute answering these questions, G-TERN will measure key parameters of the sea ice, the oceans, and the atmosphere with frequent and dense coverage over polar areas, becoming a “dynamic mapper” of the ice conditions, the ice production, and the loss in multiple time and space scales, and surrounding environment. Over polar areas, the G-TERN will measure sea ice surface elevation (<10 cm precision), roughness, and polarimetry aspects at 30-km resolution and 3-days full coverage. G-TERN will implement the interferometric GNSS reflectometry concept, from a single satellite in near-polar orbit with capability for 12 simultaneous observations. Unlike currently orbiting GNSS reflectometry missions, the G-TERN uses the full GNSS available bandwidth to improve its ranging measurements. The lifetime would be 2025–2030 or optimally 2025–2035, covering key stages of the transition toward a nearly ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer. This paper describes the mission objectives, it reviews its measurement techniques, summarizes the suggested implementation, and finally, it estimates the expected performance.
Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Access
Volume6
Pages (from-to)13980-14018
ISSN2169-3536
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Sea ice
  • Meteorology
  • Polar science
  • GNSS
  • Reflectometry
  • GNSS-R
  • Altimetry
  • Polarimetry
  • Radio-occultation
  • Low Earth Orbiter

Cite this

Cardellach, E., Wickert, J., Baggen, R., Benito, J., Camps, A., Catarino, N., ... Zuffada, C. (2018). GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission Concept. IEEE Access, 6, 13980-14018. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2814072
Cardellach, Estel ; Wickert, Jens ; Baggen, Rens ; Benito, Javier ; Camps, Adriano ; Catarino, Nuno ; Chapron, Bertrand ; Dielacher, Andreas ; Fabra, Fran ; Flato, Greg ; Fragner, Heinrich ; Gabarro, Carolina ; Gommenginger, Christine ; Haas, Christian ; Healy, Sean ; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel ; Høeg, Per ; Jaggi, Adrian ; Kainulainen, Juha ; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas ; Lemke, Norbert M. K. ; Li, Weiqiang ; Nghiem, Son V. ; Pierdicca, Nazzareno ; Portabella, Marcos ; Rautiainen, Kimmo ; Rius, Antonio ; Sasgen, Ingo ; Semmling, Maximilian ; Shum, C. K. ; Soulat, Francois ; Steiner, Andrea K. ; Tailhades, Sebastien ; Thomas, Maik ; Vilaseca, Roger ; Zuffada, Cinzia. / GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission Concept. In: IEEE Access. 2018 ; Vol. 6. pp. 13980-14018.
@article{76268151c2a64d58bd43755ff40b99c7,
title = "GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission Concept",
abstract = "The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg system (G-TERN) was proposed in response to ESA’s Earth Explorer 9 revised call by a team of 33 multi-disciplinary scientists. The primary objective of the mission is to quantify at high spatio-temporal resolution crucial characteristics, processes and interactions between sea ice, and other Earth system components in order to advance the understanding and prediction of climate change and its impacts on the environment and society. The objective is articulated through three key questions. 1) In a rapidly changing Arctic regime and under the resilient Antarctic sea ice trend, how will highly dynamic forcings and couplings between the various components of the ocean, atmosphere, and cryosphere modify or influence the processes governing the characteristics of the sea ice cover (ice production, growth, deformation, and melt)? 2) What are the impacts of extreme events and feedback mechanisms on sea ice evolution? 3) What are the effects of the cryosphere behaviors, either rapidly changing or resiliently stable, on the global oceanic and atmospheric circulation and mid-latitude extreme events? To contribute answering these questions, G-TERN will measure key parameters of the sea ice, the oceans, and the atmosphere with frequent and dense coverage over polar areas, becoming a “dynamic mapper” of the ice conditions, the ice production, and the loss in multiple time and space scales, and surrounding environment. Over polar areas, the G-TERN will measure sea ice surface elevation (<10 cm precision), roughness, and polarimetry aspects at 30-km resolution and 3-days full coverage. G-TERN will implement the interferometric GNSS reflectometry concept, from a single satellite in near-polar orbit with capability for 12 simultaneous observations. Unlike currently orbiting GNSS reflectometry missions, the G-TERN uses the full GNSS available bandwidth to improve its ranging measurements. The lifetime would be 2025–2030 or optimally 2025–2035, covering key stages of the transition toward a nearly ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer. This paper describes the mission objectives, it reviews its measurement techniques, summarizes the suggested implementation, and finally, it estimates the expected performance.",
keywords = "Sea ice, Meteorology, Polar science, GNSS, Reflectometry, GNSS-R, Altimetry, Polarimetry, Radio-occultation, Low Earth Orbiter",
author = "Estel Cardellach and Jens Wickert and Rens Baggen and Javier Benito and Adriano Camps and Nuno Catarino and Bertrand Chapron and Andreas Dielacher and Fran Fabra and Greg Flato and Heinrich Fragner and Carolina Gabarro and Christine Gommenginger and Christian Haas and Sean Healy and Manuel Hernandez-Pajares and Per H{\o}eg and Adrian Jaggi and Juha Kainulainen and Khan, {Shfaqat Abbas} and Lemke, {Norbert M. K.} and Weiqiang Li and Nghiem, {Son V.} and Nazzareno Pierdicca and Marcos Portabella and Kimmo Rautiainen and Antonio Rius and Ingo Sasgen and Maximilian Semmling and Shum, {C. K.} and Francois Soulat and Steiner, {Andrea K.} and Sebastien Tailhades and Maik Thomas and Roger Vilaseca and Cinzia Zuffada",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2814072",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "13980--14018",
journal = "IEEE Access",
issn = "2169-3536",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers",

}

Cardellach, E, Wickert, J, Baggen, R, Benito, J, Camps, A, Catarino, N, Chapron, B, Dielacher, A, Fabra, F, Flato, G, Fragner, H, Gabarro, C, Gommenginger, C, Haas, C, Healy, S, Hernandez-Pajares, M, Høeg, P, Jaggi, A, Kainulainen, J, Khan, SA, Lemke, NMK, Li, W, Nghiem, SV, Pierdicca, N, Portabella, M, Rautiainen, K, Rius, A, Sasgen, I, Semmling, M, Shum, CK, Soulat, F, Steiner, AK, Tailhades, S, Thomas, M, Vilaseca, R & Zuffada, C 2018, 'GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission Concept', IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 13980-14018. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2814072

GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission Concept. / Cardellach, Estel; Wickert, Jens; Baggen, Rens; Benito, Javier; Camps, Adriano; Catarino, Nuno; Chapron, Bertrand; Dielacher, Andreas; Fabra, Fran; Flato, Greg; Fragner, Heinrich; Gabarro, Carolina; Gommenginger, Christine; Haas, Christian; Healy, Sean; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Høeg, Per; Jaggi, Adrian; Kainulainen, Juha; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Lemke, Norbert M. K.; Li, Weiqiang; Nghiem, Son V.; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Portabella, Marcos; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Rius, Antonio; Sasgen, Ingo; Semmling, Maximilian; Shum, C. K.; Soulat, Francois; Steiner, Andrea K.; Tailhades, Sebastien; Thomas, Maik; Vilaseca, Roger; Zuffada, Cinzia.

In: IEEE Access, Vol. 6, 2018, p. 13980-14018.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission Concept

AU - Cardellach, Estel

AU - Wickert, Jens

AU - Baggen, Rens

AU - Benito, Javier

AU - Camps, Adriano

AU - Catarino, Nuno

AU - Chapron, Bertrand

AU - Dielacher, Andreas

AU - Fabra, Fran

AU - Flato, Greg

AU - Fragner, Heinrich

AU - Gabarro, Carolina

AU - Gommenginger, Christine

AU - Haas, Christian

AU - Healy, Sean

AU - Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel

AU - Høeg, Per

AU - Jaggi, Adrian

AU - Kainulainen, Juha

AU - Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

AU - Lemke, Norbert M. K.

AU - Li, Weiqiang

AU - Nghiem, Son V.

AU - Pierdicca, Nazzareno

AU - Portabella, Marcos

AU - Rautiainen, Kimmo

AU - Rius, Antonio

AU - Sasgen, Ingo

AU - Semmling, Maximilian

AU - Shum, C. K.

AU - Soulat, Francois

AU - Steiner, Andrea K.

AU - Tailhades, Sebastien

AU - Thomas, Maik

AU - Vilaseca, Roger

AU - Zuffada, Cinzia

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg system (G-TERN) was proposed in response to ESA’s Earth Explorer 9 revised call by a team of 33 multi-disciplinary scientists. The primary objective of the mission is to quantify at high spatio-temporal resolution crucial characteristics, processes and interactions between sea ice, and other Earth system components in order to advance the understanding and prediction of climate change and its impacts on the environment and society. The objective is articulated through three key questions. 1) In a rapidly changing Arctic regime and under the resilient Antarctic sea ice trend, how will highly dynamic forcings and couplings between the various components of the ocean, atmosphere, and cryosphere modify or influence the processes governing the characteristics of the sea ice cover (ice production, growth, deformation, and melt)? 2) What are the impacts of extreme events and feedback mechanisms on sea ice evolution? 3) What are the effects of the cryosphere behaviors, either rapidly changing or resiliently stable, on the global oceanic and atmospheric circulation and mid-latitude extreme events? To contribute answering these questions, G-TERN will measure key parameters of the sea ice, the oceans, and the atmosphere with frequent and dense coverage over polar areas, becoming a “dynamic mapper” of the ice conditions, the ice production, and the loss in multiple time and space scales, and surrounding environment. Over polar areas, the G-TERN will measure sea ice surface elevation (<10 cm precision), roughness, and polarimetry aspects at 30-km resolution and 3-days full coverage. G-TERN will implement the interferometric GNSS reflectometry concept, from a single satellite in near-polar orbit with capability for 12 simultaneous observations. Unlike currently orbiting GNSS reflectometry missions, the G-TERN uses the full GNSS available bandwidth to improve its ranging measurements. The lifetime would be 2025–2030 or optimally 2025–2035, covering key stages of the transition toward a nearly ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer. This paper describes the mission objectives, it reviews its measurement techniques, summarizes the suggested implementation, and finally, it estimates the expected performance.

AB - The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg system (G-TERN) was proposed in response to ESA’s Earth Explorer 9 revised call by a team of 33 multi-disciplinary scientists. The primary objective of the mission is to quantify at high spatio-temporal resolution crucial characteristics, processes and interactions between sea ice, and other Earth system components in order to advance the understanding and prediction of climate change and its impacts on the environment and society. The objective is articulated through three key questions. 1) In a rapidly changing Arctic regime and under the resilient Antarctic sea ice trend, how will highly dynamic forcings and couplings between the various components of the ocean, atmosphere, and cryosphere modify or influence the processes governing the characteristics of the sea ice cover (ice production, growth, deformation, and melt)? 2) What are the impacts of extreme events and feedback mechanisms on sea ice evolution? 3) What are the effects of the cryosphere behaviors, either rapidly changing or resiliently stable, on the global oceanic and atmospheric circulation and mid-latitude extreme events? To contribute answering these questions, G-TERN will measure key parameters of the sea ice, the oceans, and the atmosphere with frequent and dense coverage over polar areas, becoming a “dynamic mapper” of the ice conditions, the ice production, and the loss in multiple time and space scales, and surrounding environment. Over polar areas, the G-TERN will measure sea ice surface elevation (<10 cm precision), roughness, and polarimetry aspects at 30-km resolution and 3-days full coverage. G-TERN will implement the interferometric GNSS reflectometry concept, from a single satellite in near-polar orbit with capability for 12 simultaneous observations. Unlike currently orbiting GNSS reflectometry missions, the G-TERN uses the full GNSS available bandwidth to improve its ranging measurements. The lifetime would be 2025–2030 or optimally 2025–2035, covering key stages of the transition toward a nearly ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer. This paper describes the mission objectives, it reviews its measurement techniques, summarizes the suggested implementation, and finally, it estimates the expected performance.

KW - Sea ice

KW - Meteorology

KW - Polar science

KW - GNSS

KW - Reflectometry

KW - GNSS-R

KW - Altimetry

KW - Polarimetry

KW - Radio-occultation

KW - Low Earth Orbiter

U2 - 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2814072

DO - 10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2814072

M3 - Journal article

VL - 6

SP - 13980

EP - 14018

JO - IEEE Access

JF - IEEE Access

SN - 2169-3536

ER -

Cardellach E, Wickert J, Baggen R, Benito J, Camps A, Catarino N et al. GNSS Transpolar Earth Reflectometry exploriNg System (G-TERN): Mission Concept. IEEE Access. 2018;6:13980-14018. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2814072