Glucose response to fast- And long-acting insulin in people with type 2 diabetes

Sarah Ellinor Engell, Tinna Björk Aradóttir, Henrik Bengtsson, Magnus Ekelund, John Bagterp Jørgensen

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In type 2 diabetes (T2D), injections with long-acting insulin can become necessary to regulate blood glucose and avoid long-term complications. However, finding a safe and effective insulin dose, a process known as titration, is both challenging and time demanding. In this paper, we propose a new method for safe and rapid identification of a personalized insulin dose with long-acting insulin through short-term use of fast-acting insulin in an artificial pancreas (AP). To illustrate this novel concept, we simulate our method by modelling the glucose response to fast-and long-acting insulin in people with T2D. We apply a simple control-algorithm for the AP to adjust the insulin infusion rate during fasting periods. In this case-study, we simulate an insulin naïve T2D patient on AP treatment for one week, gradually adjusting the insulin infusion rate. After one week, we convert the insulin infusion rate, unit-to-unit, to a daily injection of long-acting insulin. We compare our method to titration with the standard of care 2-0-2 algorithm. Our simulations indicate that we can reduce the titration period from five weeks to a single week, whilst easing the burden on the patient.
Original languageEnglish
Book seriesIFAC-PapersOnLine
Issue number15
Pages (from-to)496-501
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event11th IFAC Symposium on Biological and Medical Systems - Ghent, Belgium
Duration: 19 Sept 202122 Sept 2021


Conference11th IFAC Symposium on Biological and Medical Systems


  • Insulin
  • Mathematical Modeling
  • Physiological Model
  • Simulation
  • Type 2 Diabetes


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