Global trends in the performance of large wind farms based on high-fidelity simulations

Søren Juhl Andersen*, Simon-Philippe Breton, Björn Witha, Stefan Ivanell, Jens Nørkær Sørensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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A total of 18 high-fidelity simulations of large wind farms have been performed by three different institutions using various inflow conditions and simulation setups. The setups differ in how the atmospheric turbulence, wind shear and wind turbine rotors are modeled, encompassing a wide range of commonly used modeling methods within the large eddy simulation (LES) framework. Various turbine spacings, atmospheric turbulence intensity levels and incoming wind velocities are considered. The work performed is part of the International Energy Agency (IEA) wind task Wakebench and is a continuation of previously published results on the subject. This work aims at providing a methodology for studying the general flow behavior in large wind farms in a systematic way. It seeks to investigate and further understand the global trends in wind farm performance, with a focus on variability. Parametric studies first map the effect of various parameters on large aligned wind farms, including wind turbine spacing, wind shear and atmospheric turbulence intensity. The results are then aggregated and compared to engineering models as well as LES results from other investigations to provide an overall picture of how much power can be extracted from large wind farms operating below the rated level. The simple engineering models, although they cannot capture the variability features, capture the general trends well. Response surfaces are constructed based on the large number of aggregated LES data corresponding to a wide range of large wind farm layouts. The response surfaces form a basis for mapping the inherently varying power characteristics inside very large wind farms, including how much the turbines are able to exploit the turbulent fluctuations within the wind farms and estimating the associated uncertainty, which is valuable information useful for risk mitigation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWind Energy Science
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)1689-1703
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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