Global sea-level budget 1993 - present

WCRP Global Sea Level Budget Group, Anny Cazenave*, Benoit Meyssignac, Michael Ablain, Magdalena Balmaseda, Jonathan Bamber, Valentina Roberta Barletta, Brian Beckley, Jérôme Benveniste, Etienne Berthier, Alejandro Blazquez, Tim Boyer , Denise Caceres , Don P. Chambers, Nicolas Champollion, Ben Chao , Jianli Chen , Lijing Cheng , John A. Church , Stephen Chuter & 71 others J. Graham Cogley , Soenke Dangendorf , Damien Desbruyères , Petra Döll , Catia Domingues, Ulrike Falk , James Famiglietti , Luciana Fenoglio-Marc, René Forsberg, Gaia Galassi , Alex Gardner, Andreas Groh, Benjamin Hamlington , Anna Hogg, Martin Horwath, Vincent Humphrey , Laurent Husson , Masayoshi Ishii , Adrian Jaeggi , Svetlana Jevrejeva , Gregory Johnson , Nicolas Kolodziejczyk , Jürgen Kusche , Kurt Lambeck , Felix Landerer , Paul Leclercq , Benoit Legresy , Eric Leuliette , William Llovel, Laurent Longuevergne , Bryant D. Loomis , Scott B Luthcke, Marta Marcos, Ben Marzeion , Chris Merchant , Mark Merrifield , Glenn Milne, Gary Mitchum , Yara Mohajerani, Maeva Monier , Didier Monselesan , Steve Nerem , Hindumathi Palanisamy , Frank Paul, Begona Pérez, Christopher G. Piecuch , Rui M. Ponte , Sarah G. Purkey , John T. Reager , Roelof Rietbroek , Eric Rignot, Riccardo Riva, Dean H. Roemmich , Louise Sandberg Sørensen, Ingo Sasgen, E.J.O. Schram, Sonia I. Seneviratne , C.K. Shum, Giorgio Spada, Detlef Stammer, Roderic van de Wal , Isabella Velicogna, Karina von Schuckmann, Yoshihide Wada, Yiguo Wang , Christopher S. Watson, David Wiese, Susan Wijffels , Richard Westaway , Guy Woppelmann, Bert Wouters

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to unforced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Its temporal evolution allows changes (e.g., acceleration) to be detected in one or more components. Study of the sea-level budget provides constraints on missing or poorly known contributions, such as the unsurveyed deep ocean or the still uncertain land water component. In the context of the World Climate Research Programme Grand Challenge entitled "Regional Sea Level and Coastal Impacts", an international effort involving the sea-level community worldwide has been recently initiated with the objective of assessing the various datasets used to estimate components of the sea-level budget during the altimetry era (1993 to present). These datasets are based on the combination of a broad range of space-based and in situ observations, model estimates, and algorithms. Evaluating their quality, quantifying uncertainties and identifying sources of discrepancies between component estimates is extremely useful for various applications in climate research. This effort involves several tens of scientists from about 50 research teams/institutions worldwide (www.wcrp-climate.org/grand-challenges/gc-sea-level, last access: 22 August 2018). The results presented in this paper are a synthesis of the first assessment performed during 2017–2018. We present estimates of the altimetry-based global mean sea level (average rate of 3.1±0.3mmyr−1 and acceleration of 0.1mmyr−2 over 1993–present), as well as of the different components of the sea-level budget (http://doi.org/10.17882/54854, last access: 22 August 2018). We further examine closure of the sea-level budget, comparing the observed global mean sea level with the sum of components. Ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica contribute 42%, 21%, 15% and 8% to the global mean sea level over the 1993–present period. We also study the sea-level budget over 2005–present, using GRACE-based ocean mass estimates instead of the sum of individual mass components. Our results demonstrate that the global mean sea level can be closed to within 0.3mmyr−1 (1σ). Substantial uncertainty remains for the land water storage component, as shown when examining individual mass contributions to sea level.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEarth System Science Data
Volume10
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)1551-1590
ISSN1866-3508
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Cite this

Group, WCRP. G. S. L. B., Cazenave, A., Meyssignac, B., Ablain, M., Balmaseda, M., Bamber, J., ... Wouters, B. (2018). Global sea-level budget 1993 - present. Earth System Science Data, 10(3), 1551-1590. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-1551-2018
Group, WCRP Global Sea Level Budget ; Cazenave, Anny ; Meyssignac, Benoit ; Ablain, Michael ; Balmaseda, Magdalena ; Bamber, Jonathan ; Barletta, Valentina Roberta ; Beckley, Brian ; Benveniste, Jérôme ; Berthier, Etienne ; Blazquez, Alejandro ; Boyer , Tim ; Caceres , Denise ; Chambers, Don P. ; Champollion, Nicolas ; Chao , Ben ; Chen , Jianli ; Cheng , Lijing ; Church , John A. ; Chuter, Stephen ; Cogley , J. Graham ; Dangendorf , Soenke ; Desbruyères , Damien ; Döll , Petra ; Domingues, Catia ; Falk , Ulrike ; Famiglietti , James ; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana ; Forsberg, René ; Galassi , Gaia ; Gardner, Alex ; Groh, Andreas ; Hamlington , Benjamin ; Hogg, Anna ; Horwath, Martin ; Humphrey , Vincent ; Husson , Laurent ; Ishii , Masayoshi ; Jaeggi , Adrian ; Jevrejeva , Svetlana ; Johnson , Gregory ; Kolodziejczyk , Nicolas ; Kusche , Jürgen ; Lambeck , Kurt ; Landerer , Felix ; Leclercq , Paul ; Legresy , Benoit ; Leuliette , Eric ; Llovel, William ; Longuevergne , Laurent ; Loomis , Bryant D. ; Luthcke, Scott B ; Marcos, Marta ; Marzeion , Ben ; Merchant , Chris ; Merrifield , Mark ; Milne, Glenn ; Mitchum , Gary ; Mohajerani, Yara ; Monier , Maeva ; Monselesan , Didier ; Nerem , Steve ; Palanisamy , Hindumathi ; Paul, Frank ; Pérez, Begona ; Piecuch , Christopher G. ; Ponte , Rui M. ; Purkey , Sarah G. ; Reager , John T. ; Rietbroek , Roelof ; Rignot, Eric ; Riva, Riccardo ; Roemmich , Dean H. ; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg ; Sasgen, Ingo ; Schram, E.J.O. ; Seneviratne , Sonia I. ; Shum, C.K. ; Spada, Giorgio ; Stammer, Detlef ; van de Wal , Roderic ; Velicogna, Isabella ; von Schuckmann, Karina ; Wada, Yoshihide ; Wang , Yiguo ; Watson, Christopher S. ; Wiese, David ; Wijffels , Susan ; Westaway , Richard ; Woppelmann, Guy ; Wouters, Bert. / Global sea-level budget 1993 - present. In: Earth System Science Data. 2018 ; Vol. 10, No. 3. pp. 1551-1590.
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title = "Global sea-level budget 1993 - present",
abstract = "Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to unforced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Its temporal evolution allows changes (e.g., acceleration) to be detected in one or more components. Study of the sea-level budget provides constraints on missing or poorly known contributions, such as the unsurveyed deep ocean or the still uncertain land water component. In the context of the World Climate Research Programme Grand Challenge entitled {"}Regional Sea Level and Coastal Impacts{"}, an international effort involving the sea-level community worldwide has been recently initiated with the objective of assessing the various datasets used to estimate components of the sea-level budget during the altimetry era (1993 to present). These datasets are based on the combination of a broad range of space-based and in situ observations, model estimates, and algorithms. Evaluating their quality, quantifying uncertainties and identifying sources of discrepancies between component estimates is extremely useful for various applications in climate research. This effort involves several tens of scientists from about 50 research teams/institutions worldwide (www.wcrp-climate.org/grand-challenges/gc-sea-level, last access: 22 August 2018). The results presented in this paper are a synthesis of the first assessment performed during 2017–2018. We present estimates of the altimetry-based global mean sea level (average rate of 3.1±0.3mmyr−1 and acceleration of 0.1mmyr−2 over 1993–present), as well as of the different components of the sea-level budget (http://doi.org/10.17882/54854, last access: 22 August 2018). We further examine closure of the sea-level budget, comparing the observed global mean sea level with the sum of components. Ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica contribute 42{\%}, 21{\%}, 15{\%} and 8{\%} to the global mean sea level over the 1993–present period. We also study the sea-level budget over 2005–present, using GRACE-based ocean mass estimates instead of the sum of individual mass components. Our results demonstrate that the global mean sea level can be closed to within 0.3mmyr−1 (1σ). Substantial uncertainty remains for the land water storage component, as shown when examining individual mass contributions to sea level.",
author = "Group, {WCRP Global Sea Level Budget} and Anny Cazenave and Benoit Meyssignac and Michael Ablain and Magdalena Balmaseda and Jonathan Bamber and Barletta, {Valentina Roberta} and Brian Beckley and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Benveniste and Etienne Berthier and Alejandro Blazquez and Tim Boyer and Denise Caceres and Chambers, {Don P.} and Nicolas Champollion and Ben Chao and Jianli Chen and Lijing Cheng and Church, {John A.} and Stephen Chuter and Cogley, {J. Graham} and Soenke Dangendorf and Damien Desbruy{\`e}res and Petra D{\"o}ll and Catia Domingues and Ulrike Falk and James Famiglietti and Luciana Fenoglio-Marc and Ren{\'e} Forsberg and Gaia Galassi and Alex Gardner and Andreas Groh and Benjamin Hamlington and Anna Hogg and Martin Horwath and Vincent Humphrey and Laurent Husson and Masayoshi Ishii and Adrian Jaeggi and Svetlana Jevrejeva and Gregory Johnson and Nicolas Kolodziejczyk and J{\"u}rgen Kusche and Kurt Lambeck and Felix Landerer and Paul Leclercq and Benoit Legresy and Eric Leuliette and William Llovel and Laurent Longuevergne and Loomis, {Bryant D.} and Luthcke, {Scott B} and Marta Marcos and Ben Marzeion and Chris Merchant and Mark Merrifield and Glenn Milne and Gary Mitchum and Yara Mohajerani and Maeva Monier and Didier Monselesan and Steve Nerem and Hindumathi Palanisamy and Frank Paul and Begona P{\'e}rez and Piecuch, {Christopher G.} and Ponte, {Rui M.} and Purkey, {Sarah G.} and Reager, {John T.} and Roelof Rietbroek and Eric Rignot and Riccardo Riva and Roemmich, {Dean H.} and S{\o}rensen, {Louise Sandberg} and Ingo Sasgen and E.J.O. Schram and Seneviratne, {Sonia I.} and C.K. Shum and Giorgio Spada and Detlef Stammer and {van de Wal}, Roderic and Isabella Velicogna and {von Schuckmann}, Karina and Yoshihide Wada and Yiguo Wang and Watson, {Christopher S.} and David Wiese and Susan Wijffels and Richard Westaway and Guy Woppelmann and Bert Wouters",
note = "{\circledC} Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.5194/essd-10-1551-2018",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "1551--1590",
journal = "Earth System Science Data",
issn = "1866-3508",
publisher = "Copernicus GmbH",
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Group, WCRPGSLB, Cazenave, A, Meyssignac, B, Ablain, M, Balmaseda, M, Bamber, J, Barletta, VR, Beckley, B, Benveniste, J, Berthier, E, Blazquez, A, Boyer , T, Caceres , D, Chambers, DP, Champollion, N, Chao , B, Chen , J, Cheng , L, Church , JA, Chuter, S, Cogley , JG, Dangendorf , S, Desbruyères , D, Döll , P, Domingues, C, Falk , U, Famiglietti , J, Fenoglio-Marc, L, Forsberg, R, Galassi , G, Gardner, A, Groh, A, Hamlington , B, Hogg, A, Horwath, M, Humphrey , V, Husson , L, Ishii , M, Jaeggi , A, Jevrejeva , S, Johnson , G, Kolodziejczyk , N, Kusche , J, Lambeck , K, Landerer , F, Leclercq , P, Legresy , B, Leuliette , E, Llovel, W, Longuevergne , L, Loomis , BD, Luthcke, SB, Marcos, M, Marzeion , B, Merchant , C, Merrifield , M, Milne, G, Mitchum , G, Mohajerani, Y, Monier , M, Monselesan , D, Nerem , S, Palanisamy , H, Paul, F, Pérez, B, Piecuch , CG, Ponte , RM, Purkey , SG, Reager , JT, Rietbroek , R, Rignot, E, Riva, R, Roemmich , DH, Sørensen, LS, Sasgen, I, Schram, EJO, Seneviratne , SI, Shum, CK, Spada, G, Stammer, D, van de Wal , R, Velicogna, I, von Schuckmann, K, Wada, Y, Wang , Y, Watson, CS, Wiese, D, Wijffels , S, Westaway , R, Woppelmann, G & Wouters, B 2018, 'Global sea-level budget 1993 - present', Earth System Science Data, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1551-1590. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-1551-2018

Global sea-level budget 1993 - present. / Group, WCRP Global Sea Level Budget; Cazenave, Anny; Meyssignac, Benoit ; Ablain, Michael ; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Bamber, Jonathan; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Beckley, Brian ; Benveniste, Jérôme; Berthier, Etienne; Blazquez, Alejandro ; Boyer , Tim; Caceres , Denise ; Chambers, Don P.; Champollion, Nicolas; Chao , Ben ; Chen , Jianli ; Cheng , Lijing; Church , John A. ; Chuter, Stephen ; Cogley , J. Graham ; Dangendorf , Soenke ; Desbruyères , Damien ; Döll , Petra ; Domingues, Catia ; Falk , Ulrike ; Famiglietti , James ; Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana ; Forsberg, René; Galassi , Gaia ; Gardner, Alex ; Groh, Andreas ; Hamlington , Benjamin ; Hogg, Anna; Horwath, Martin ; Humphrey , Vincent ; Husson , Laurent ; Ishii , Masayoshi ; Jaeggi , Adrian ; Jevrejeva , Svetlana; Johnson , Gregory; Kolodziejczyk , Nicolas ; Kusche , Jürgen ; Lambeck , Kurt ; Landerer , Felix ; Leclercq , Paul ; Legresy , Benoit ; Leuliette , Eric ; Llovel, William; Longuevergne , Laurent ; Loomis , Bryant D. ; Luthcke, Scott B; Marcos, Marta; Marzeion , Ben ; Merchant , Chris ; Merrifield , Mark ; Milne, Glenn; Mitchum , Gary; Mohajerani, Yara ; Monier , Maeva ; Monselesan , Didier ; Nerem , Steve ; Palanisamy , Hindumathi ; Paul, Frank; Pérez, Begona; Piecuch , Christopher G. ; Ponte , Rui M. ; Purkey , Sarah G. ; Reager , John T. ; Rietbroek , Roelof ; Rignot, Eric; Riva, Riccardo ; Roemmich , Dean H. ; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Sasgen, Ingo; Schram, E.J.O. ; Seneviratne , Sonia I. ; Shum, C.K.; Spada, Giorgio; Stammer, Detlef; van de Wal , Roderic ; Velicogna, Isabella; von Schuckmann, Karina; Wada, Yoshihide; Wang , Yiguo ; Watson, Christopher S.; Wiese, David ; Wijffels , Susan ; Westaway , Richard ; Woppelmann, Guy; Wouters, Bert.

In: Earth System Science Data, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2018, p. 1551-1590.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Global sea-level budget 1993 - present

AU - Group, WCRP Global Sea Level Budget

AU - Cazenave, Anny

AU - Meyssignac, Benoit

AU - Ablain, Michael

AU - Balmaseda, Magdalena

AU - Bamber, Jonathan

AU - Barletta, Valentina Roberta

AU - Beckley, Brian

AU - Benveniste, Jérôme

AU - Berthier, Etienne

AU - Blazquez, Alejandro

AU - Boyer , Tim

AU - Caceres , Denise

AU - Chambers, Don P.

AU - Champollion, Nicolas

AU - Chao , Ben

AU - Chen , Jianli

AU - Cheng , Lijing

AU - Church , John A.

AU - Chuter, Stephen

AU - Cogley , J. Graham

AU - Dangendorf , Soenke

AU - Desbruyères , Damien

AU - Döll , Petra

AU - Domingues, Catia

AU - Falk , Ulrike

AU - Famiglietti , James

AU - Fenoglio-Marc, Luciana

AU - Forsberg, René

AU - Galassi , Gaia

AU - Gardner, Alex

AU - Groh, Andreas

AU - Hamlington , Benjamin

AU - Hogg, Anna

AU - Horwath, Martin

AU - Humphrey , Vincent

AU - Husson , Laurent

AU - Ishii , Masayoshi

AU - Jaeggi , Adrian

AU - Jevrejeva , Svetlana

AU - Johnson , Gregory

AU - Kolodziejczyk , Nicolas

AU - Kusche , Jürgen

AU - Lambeck , Kurt

AU - Landerer , Felix

AU - Leclercq , Paul

AU - Legresy , Benoit

AU - Leuliette , Eric

AU - Llovel, William

AU - Longuevergne , Laurent

AU - Loomis , Bryant D.

AU - Luthcke, Scott B

AU - Marcos, Marta

AU - Marzeion , Ben

AU - Merchant , Chris

AU - Merrifield , Mark

AU - Milne, Glenn

AU - Mitchum , Gary

AU - Mohajerani, Yara

AU - Monier , Maeva

AU - Monselesan , Didier

AU - Nerem , Steve

AU - Palanisamy , Hindumathi

AU - Paul, Frank

AU - Pérez, Begona

AU - Piecuch , Christopher G.

AU - Ponte , Rui M.

AU - Purkey , Sarah G.

AU - Reager , John T.

AU - Rietbroek , Roelof

AU - Rignot, Eric

AU - Riva, Riccardo

AU - Roemmich , Dean H.

AU - Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

AU - Sasgen, Ingo

AU - Schram, E.J.O.

AU - Seneviratne , Sonia I.

AU - Shum, C.K.

AU - Spada, Giorgio

AU - Stammer, Detlef

AU - van de Wal , Roderic

AU - Velicogna, Isabella

AU - von Schuckmann, Karina

AU - Wada, Yoshihide

AU - Wang , Yiguo

AU - Watson, Christopher S.

AU - Wiese, David

AU - Wijffels , Susan

AU - Westaway , Richard

AU - Woppelmann, Guy

AU - Wouters, Bert

N1 - © Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to unforced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Its temporal evolution allows changes (e.g., acceleration) to be detected in one or more components. Study of the sea-level budget provides constraints on missing or poorly known contributions, such as the unsurveyed deep ocean or the still uncertain land water component. In the context of the World Climate Research Programme Grand Challenge entitled "Regional Sea Level and Coastal Impacts", an international effort involving the sea-level community worldwide has been recently initiated with the objective of assessing the various datasets used to estimate components of the sea-level budget during the altimetry era (1993 to present). These datasets are based on the combination of a broad range of space-based and in situ observations, model estimates, and algorithms. Evaluating their quality, quantifying uncertainties and identifying sources of discrepancies between component estimates is extremely useful for various applications in climate research. This effort involves several tens of scientists from about 50 research teams/institutions worldwide (www.wcrp-climate.org/grand-challenges/gc-sea-level, last access: 22 August 2018). The results presented in this paper are a synthesis of the first assessment performed during 2017–2018. We present estimates of the altimetry-based global mean sea level (average rate of 3.1±0.3mmyr−1 and acceleration of 0.1mmyr−2 over 1993–present), as well as of the different components of the sea-level budget (http://doi.org/10.17882/54854, last access: 22 August 2018). We further examine closure of the sea-level budget, comparing the observed global mean sea level with the sum of components. Ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica contribute 42%, 21%, 15% and 8% to the global mean sea level over the 1993–present period. We also study the sea-level budget over 2005–present, using GRACE-based ocean mass estimates instead of the sum of individual mass components. Our results demonstrate that the global mean sea level can be closed to within 0.3mmyr−1 (1σ). Substantial uncertainty remains for the land water storage component, as shown when examining individual mass contributions to sea level.

AB - Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to unforced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Its temporal evolution allows changes (e.g., acceleration) to be detected in one or more components. Study of the sea-level budget provides constraints on missing or poorly known contributions, such as the unsurveyed deep ocean or the still uncertain land water component. In the context of the World Climate Research Programme Grand Challenge entitled "Regional Sea Level and Coastal Impacts", an international effort involving the sea-level community worldwide has been recently initiated with the objective of assessing the various datasets used to estimate components of the sea-level budget during the altimetry era (1993 to present). These datasets are based on the combination of a broad range of space-based and in situ observations, model estimates, and algorithms. Evaluating their quality, quantifying uncertainties and identifying sources of discrepancies between component estimates is extremely useful for various applications in climate research. This effort involves several tens of scientists from about 50 research teams/institutions worldwide (www.wcrp-climate.org/grand-challenges/gc-sea-level, last access: 22 August 2018). The results presented in this paper are a synthesis of the first assessment performed during 2017–2018. We present estimates of the altimetry-based global mean sea level (average rate of 3.1±0.3mmyr−1 and acceleration of 0.1mmyr−2 over 1993–present), as well as of the different components of the sea-level budget (http://doi.org/10.17882/54854, last access: 22 August 2018). We further examine closure of the sea-level budget, comparing the observed global mean sea level with the sum of components. Ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, Greenland and Antarctica contribute 42%, 21%, 15% and 8% to the global mean sea level over the 1993–present period. We also study the sea-level budget over 2005–present, using GRACE-based ocean mass estimates instead of the sum of individual mass components. Our results demonstrate that the global mean sea level can be closed to within 0.3mmyr−1 (1σ). Substantial uncertainty remains for the land water storage component, as shown when examining individual mass contributions to sea level.

U2 - 10.5194/essd-10-1551-2018

DO - 10.5194/essd-10-1551-2018

M3 - Journal article

VL - 10

SP - 1551

EP - 1590

JO - Earth System Science Data

JF - Earth System Science Data

SN - 1866-3508

IS - 3

ER -

Group WCRPGSLB, Cazenave A, Meyssignac B, Ablain M, Balmaseda M, Bamber J et al. Global sea-level budget 1993 - present. Earth System Science Data. 2018;10(3):1551-1590. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-1551-2018