Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

Aysu Okbay, Jonathan P. Beauchamp, Mark Alan Fontana, James J. Lee,, Tune H. Pers, Cornelius A. Rietveld, Patrick Turley, Guo-Bo Chen, Valur Emilsson, S. Fleur W. Meddens, Tarunveer S. Ahluwalia, Thorkild I. A. Sørensen, Pascal Timshel, Klaus Bønnelykke, Johannes Waage, Hans Bisgaard, Thorkild I. A. Sørensen

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    Abstract

    Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals1. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample1,2 of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalNature
    Volume533
    Issue number7604
    Pages (from-to)539-542
    Number of pages16
    ISSN0028-0836
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016

    Bibliographical note

    For a complete author list see article.

    Keywords

    • Learning and memory
    • Psychiatric disorders
    • Genome-wide association studies
    • Behavioural genetics

    Cite this

    Okbay, A., P. Beauchamp, J., Alan Fontana, M., J. Lee, J., H. Pers, T., A. Rietveld, C., Turley, P., Chen, G-B., Emilsson, V., Fleur W. Meddens, S., S. Ahluwalia, T., Sørensen, T. I. A., Timshel, P., Bønnelykke, K., Waage, J., Bisgaard, H., & I. A. Sørensen, T. (2016). Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment. Nature, 533(7604), 539-542. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature17671