Sockeye salmon samples from six populations from Kamchatka Peninsula were tested for polymorphism at six microsatellite (STR) and forty-five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. These populations included the five largest populations in the region. Statistically significant genetic differentiation among the local populations from this part of the species range examined was demonstrated. The STR variability points to pronounced genetic divergence of the populations from two geographical regions, Eastern and Western Kamchatka. The results of SNP analysis further revealed that the populations of the two northern Kamchatka rivers (Palana River and Pakhacha River) differed significantly from the other populations studied. We estimated the efficiency for both types of markers for individual assignment of fish taken in mixtures. Accuracy was generally higher for assignment with SNP data; however, pooling of the STR and SNP data sets provided higher accuracy than with either one alone.