Background: Selenium is an essential trace element and is suggested to play a role in the etiology of a number of chronic diseases. Genetic variation in genes encoding selenoproteins, such as selenoprotein P and the glutathione peroxidases, may affect selenium status and, thus, individual susceptibility to some chronic diseases. In the present study, we aimed to (1) investigate the effect of mussel and fish intake on glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity and (2) examine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in the GPX1, GPX4, and SELENOP genes modify the effect of mussel and fish intake for 26 weeks on whole blood selenium, plasma selenoprotein P concentrations, and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity in a randomized intervention trial in Denmark. Results: CC homozygotes of the SELENOP/rs3877899 polymorphism who consumed 1000 g fish and mussels per week for 26 consecutive weeks had higher levels of both selenoprotein P (difference between means - 4.68 ng/mL (95% CI - 8.49, - 0.871)) and whole blood selenium (difference between means - 5.76 (95% CI - 12.5, 1.01)) compared to fish and mussel consuming T-allele carriers although the effect in whole blood selenium concentration was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study indicates that genetically determined variation in SELENOP leads to different responses in expression of selenoproteins following consumption of selenium-rich foods. This study also emphasizes the importance of taking individual aspects such as genotypes into consideration when assessing risk in public health recommendations.
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- Dietary intervention
- Gene-diet interaction
- Glutathione peroxidase
- Selenoprotein P