Future trends in gaseous surface hardening of titanium and titanium alloys

T. L. Christiansen*, M.S. Jellesen, M.A.J. Somers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

An overview of existing surface hardening techniques applicable for titanium and titanium alloys with special emphasis on gaseous based processes is provided. New processes for gaseous surface hardening of titanium alloys and zirconium are presented. This entails low temperature oxidizing by chemically controlled partial pressures of oxygen resulting in deep and hard diffusion zones and the possibility for applying so-called mixed-interstitial phases for surface hardening. Mixed-interstitial phases (based on carbon, oxygen and nitrogen) can result in new intriguing microstructural features and properties in case-hardened titanium. Deep and very hard cases can be produced by these new techniques. Hardness values of metallic titanium of more than 1800 HV is possible by simultaneously dissolving three interstitial elements. Mixed-interstitial compounds based on oxygen and carbon can lead to hardness values in the range of 2000 to 3000 HV. Finally, examples of surface hardening of printed parts in titanium grade 5 are shown.
Original languageEnglish
JournalLa Metallurgia Italiana
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)13-22
ISSN0026-0843
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Keywords

  • Titanium
  • Surface hardening
  • Nitriding
  • Oxidation
  • Carbo-oxidation
  • Mixed interstitial phases

Cite this

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title = "Future trends in gaseous surface hardening of titanium and titanium alloys",
abstract = "An overview of existing surface hardening techniques applicable for titanium and titanium alloys with special emphasis on gaseous based processes is provided. New processes for gaseous surface hardening of titanium alloys and zirconium are presented. This entails low temperature oxidizing by chemically controlled partial pressures of oxygen resulting in deep and hard diffusion zones and the possibility for applying so-called mixed-interstitial phases for surface hardening. Mixed-interstitial phases (based on carbon, oxygen and nitrogen) can result in new intriguing microstructural features and properties in case-hardened titanium. Deep and very hard cases can be produced by these new techniques. Hardness values of metallic titanium of more than 1800 HV is possible by simultaneously dissolving three interstitial elements. Mixed-interstitial compounds based on oxygen and carbon can lead to hardness values in the range of 2000 to 3000 HV. Finally, examples of surface hardening of printed parts in titanium grade 5 are shown.",
keywords = "Titanium, Surface hardening, Nitriding, Oxidation, Carbo-oxidation, Mixed interstitial phases",
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language = "English",
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Future trends in gaseous surface hardening of titanium and titanium alloys. / Christiansen, T. L.; Jellesen, M.S.; Somers, M.A.J.

In: La Metallurgia Italiana, No. 9, 2018, p. 13-22.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Future trends in gaseous surface hardening of titanium and titanium alloys

AU - Christiansen, T. L.

AU - Jellesen, M.S.

AU - Somers, M.A.J.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - An overview of existing surface hardening techniques applicable for titanium and titanium alloys with special emphasis on gaseous based processes is provided. New processes for gaseous surface hardening of titanium alloys and zirconium are presented. This entails low temperature oxidizing by chemically controlled partial pressures of oxygen resulting in deep and hard diffusion zones and the possibility for applying so-called mixed-interstitial phases for surface hardening. Mixed-interstitial phases (based on carbon, oxygen and nitrogen) can result in new intriguing microstructural features and properties in case-hardened titanium. Deep and very hard cases can be produced by these new techniques. Hardness values of metallic titanium of more than 1800 HV is possible by simultaneously dissolving three interstitial elements. Mixed-interstitial compounds based on oxygen and carbon can lead to hardness values in the range of 2000 to 3000 HV. Finally, examples of surface hardening of printed parts in titanium grade 5 are shown.

AB - An overview of existing surface hardening techniques applicable for titanium and titanium alloys with special emphasis on gaseous based processes is provided. New processes for gaseous surface hardening of titanium alloys and zirconium are presented. This entails low temperature oxidizing by chemically controlled partial pressures of oxygen resulting in deep and hard diffusion zones and the possibility for applying so-called mixed-interstitial phases for surface hardening. Mixed-interstitial phases (based on carbon, oxygen and nitrogen) can result in new intriguing microstructural features and properties in case-hardened titanium. Deep and very hard cases can be produced by these new techniques. Hardness values of metallic titanium of more than 1800 HV is possible by simultaneously dissolving three interstitial elements. Mixed-interstitial compounds based on oxygen and carbon can lead to hardness values in the range of 2000 to 3000 HV. Finally, examples of surface hardening of printed parts in titanium grade 5 are shown.

KW - Titanium

KW - Surface hardening

KW - Nitriding

KW - Oxidation

KW - Carbo-oxidation

KW - Mixed interstitial phases

M3 - Journal article

SP - 13

EP - 22

JO - La Metallurgia Italiana

JF - La Metallurgia Italiana

SN - 0026-0843

IS - 9

ER -