Future low-inertia power systems: Requirements, issues, and solutions - A review

Kamala Sarojini Ratnam, K. Palanisamy*, Guangya Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review


The utilization of power electronic inverters in power grids has increased tremendously, along with advancements in renewable energy sources. The usage of power electronic inverters results in the decoupling of sources from loads, leading to a decrease in the inertia of power systems. This decrease results in a high rate of change of frequency and frequency deviations under power imbalance that substantially affect the frequency stability of the system. This study focuses on the requirements of inertia and the corresponding issues that challenge the various country grid operators during the large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. This study reviews the various control techniques and technologies that offset a decrease in inertia and discusses the inertia emulation control techniques available for inverters, wind turbines, photovoltaic systems, and microgrid. This study attempts to explore future research directions and may assist researchers in choosing an appropriate topology, depending on requirements.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109773
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • Inertia control
  • Large-scale integration of renewable energy sources
  • Rate of change of frequency
  • Virtual synchronous generator

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Future low-inertia power systems: Requirements, issues, and solutions - A review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this