Fungi secrete an array of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), reflecting their specialized habitat-related substrate utilization. Despite its importance for fitness, enzyme secretome composition is not used in fungal classification, since an overarching relationship between CAZyme profiles and fungal phylogeny/taxonomy has not been established. For 465 Ascomycota and Basidiomycota genomes, we predicted CAZyme-secretomes, using a new peptide-based annotation method, Conserved-Unique-Peptide-Patterns, enabling functional prediction directly from sequence. We categorized each enzyme according to CAZy-family and predicted molecular function, hereby obtaining a list of "EC-Function;CAZy-Family" observations. These "Function;Family"-based secretome profiles were compared, using a Yule-dissimilarity scoring algorithm, giving equal consideration to the presence and absence of individual observations. Assessment of "Function;Family" enzyme profile relatedness (EPR) across 465 genomes partitioned Ascomycota from Basidiomycota placing Aspergillus and Penicillium among the Ascomycota. Analogously, we calculated CAZyme "Function;Family" profile-similarities among 95 Aspergillus and Penicillium species to form an alignment-free, EPR-based dendrogram. This revealed a stunning congruence between EPR categorization and phylogenetic/taxonomic grouping of the Aspergilli and Penicillia. Our analysis suggests EPR grouping of fungi to be defined both by "shared presence" and "shared absence" of CAZyme "Function;Family" observations. This finding indicates that CAZymes-secretome evolution is an integral part of fungal speciation, supporting integration of cladogenesis and anagenesis.
Barrett, K., Jensen, K., Meyer, A. S., Frisvad, J. C., & Lange, L. (2020). Fungal secretome profile categorization of CAZymes by function and family corresponds to fungal phylogeny and taxonomy: Example Aspergillus and Penicillium. Scientific Reports, 10(1), . https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61907-1