Fungal and chemical diversity in hay and wrapped haylage for equine feed

Birgitte Andersen, Christopher Phippen, Jens Christian Frisvad, Sue Emery, Robert A. Eustace

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The presence of fungi and mycotoxins in silage (fermented maize) for cattle and other ruminants have been studied extensively compared to wrapped haylage (fermented grass) for horses and other monogastric animals. The purpose of this work was to examine the fungal diversity of wrapped haylage and conventional hay and to analyse the forage sample for fungal metabolites. Faeces samples were also analysed to study the fate of fungi and metabolites. Fungal diversity of the samples was determined by direct plating on DG18, V8 and MEA and chemical analyses were done using LC-MS/MS. The results show that Sordaria fimicola was common in both hay and haylage, while Penicillium spp. was prevalent in haylage and Aspergillus spp. in hay. Communiols were found in all types of samples together with gliocladic acid. Roquefortines and fumigaclavines were found in haylage with no visible fungal growth, but not in hay. In haylage hot spot samples, a series of Penicillium metabolites were detected: Andrastins, fumigaclavines, isofumigaclavines, marcfortines, mycophenolic acid, PR toxins, and roquefortines. Penicillium solitum was found repeatedly in haylage and haylage hot spot samples and viridicatols were detected in a hot spot sample, which has not been reported before. Even haylage with no visible fungal growth contained more metabolites than hay. Individually, the metabolites detected in haylage may, in high doses, be mutagenic, neurotoxic or immunosuppressive; but the synergistic effect of small doses may also have other or greater negative health effects on equines than on ruminants.
Original languageEnglish
JournalMycotoxin Research
Number of pages14
ISSN0178-7888
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Keywords

  • Horses
  • Ponies
  • Mycotoxins
  • Roquefortine
  • Laminitis
  • Metabolite profiling
  • Adverse health effects

Cite this

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title = "Fungal and chemical diversity in hay and wrapped haylage for equine feed",
abstract = "The presence of fungi and mycotoxins in silage (fermented maize) for cattle and other ruminants have been studied extensively compared to wrapped haylage (fermented grass) for horses and other monogastric animals. The purpose of this work was to examine the fungal diversity of wrapped haylage and conventional hay and to analyse the forage sample for fungal metabolites. Faeces samples were also analysed to study the fate of fungi and metabolites. Fungal diversity of the samples was determined by direct plating on DG18, V8 and MEA and chemical analyses were done using LC-MS/MS. The results show that Sordaria fimicola was common in both hay and haylage, while Penicillium spp. was prevalent in haylage and Aspergillus spp. in hay. Communiols were found in all types of samples together with gliocladic acid. Roquefortines and fumigaclavines were found in haylage with no visible fungal growth, but not in hay. In haylage hot spot samples, a series of Penicillium metabolites were detected: Andrastins, fumigaclavines, isofumigaclavines, marcfortines, mycophenolic acid, PR toxins, and roquefortines. Penicillium solitum was found repeatedly in haylage and haylage hot spot samples and viridicatols were detected in a hot spot sample, which has not been reported before. Even haylage with no visible fungal growth contained more metabolites than hay. Individually, the metabolites detected in haylage may, in high doses, be mutagenic, neurotoxic or immunosuppressive; but the synergistic effect of small doses may also have other or greater negative health effects on equines than on ruminants.",
keywords = "Horses, Ponies, Mycotoxins, Roquefortine, Laminitis, Metabolite profiling, Adverse health effects",
author = "Birgitte Andersen and Christopher Phippen and Frisvad, {Jens Christian} and Sue Emery and Eustace, {Robert A.}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1007/s12550-019-00377-5",
language = "English",
journal = "Mycotoxin Research",
issn = "0178-7888",
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Fungal and chemical diversity in hay and wrapped haylage for equine feed. / Andersen, Birgitte; Phippen, Christopher; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Emery, Sue; Eustace, Robert A.

In: Mycotoxin Research, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Fungal and chemical diversity in hay and wrapped haylage for equine feed

AU - Andersen, Birgitte

AU - Phippen, Christopher

AU - Frisvad, Jens Christian

AU - Emery, Sue

AU - Eustace, Robert A.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - The presence of fungi and mycotoxins in silage (fermented maize) for cattle and other ruminants have been studied extensively compared to wrapped haylage (fermented grass) for horses and other monogastric animals. The purpose of this work was to examine the fungal diversity of wrapped haylage and conventional hay and to analyse the forage sample for fungal metabolites. Faeces samples were also analysed to study the fate of fungi and metabolites. Fungal diversity of the samples was determined by direct plating on DG18, V8 and MEA and chemical analyses were done using LC-MS/MS. The results show that Sordaria fimicola was common in both hay and haylage, while Penicillium spp. was prevalent in haylage and Aspergillus spp. in hay. Communiols were found in all types of samples together with gliocladic acid. Roquefortines and fumigaclavines were found in haylage with no visible fungal growth, but not in hay. In haylage hot spot samples, a series of Penicillium metabolites were detected: Andrastins, fumigaclavines, isofumigaclavines, marcfortines, mycophenolic acid, PR toxins, and roquefortines. Penicillium solitum was found repeatedly in haylage and haylage hot spot samples and viridicatols were detected in a hot spot sample, which has not been reported before. Even haylage with no visible fungal growth contained more metabolites than hay. Individually, the metabolites detected in haylage may, in high doses, be mutagenic, neurotoxic or immunosuppressive; but the synergistic effect of small doses may also have other or greater negative health effects on equines than on ruminants.

AB - The presence of fungi and mycotoxins in silage (fermented maize) for cattle and other ruminants have been studied extensively compared to wrapped haylage (fermented grass) for horses and other monogastric animals. The purpose of this work was to examine the fungal diversity of wrapped haylage and conventional hay and to analyse the forage sample for fungal metabolites. Faeces samples were also analysed to study the fate of fungi and metabolites. Fungal diversity of the samples was determined by direct plating on DG18, V8 and MEA and chemical analyses were done using LC-MS/MS. The results show that Sordaria fimicola was common in both hay and haylage, while Penicillium spp. was prevalent in haylage and Aspergillus spp. in hay. Communiols were found in all types of samples together with gliocladic acid. Roquefortines and fumigaclavines were found in haylage with no visible fungal growth, but not in hay. In haylage hot spot samples, a series of Penicillium metabolites were detected: Andrastins, fumigaclavines, isofumigaclavines, marcfortines, mycophenolic acid, PR toxins, and roquefortines. Penicillium solitum was found repeatedly in haylage and haylage hot spot samples and viridicatols were detected in a hot spot sample, which has not been reported before. Even haylage with no visible fungal growth contained more metabolites than hay. Individually, the metabolites detected in haylage may, in high doses, be mutagenic, neurotoxic or immunosuppressive; but the synergistic effect of small doses may also have other or greater negative health effects on equines than on ruminants.

KW - Horses

KW - Ponies

KW - Mycotoxins

KW - Roquefortine

KW - Laminitis

KW - Metabolite profiling

KW - Adverse health effects

U2 - 10.1007/s12550-019-00377-5

DO - 10.1007/s12550-019-00377-5

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 31776869

JO - Mycotoxin Research

JF - Mycotoxin Research

SN - 0178-7888

ER -