Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation Controlled by Surface Electromyographic Signals Produced by Volitional Activation of the Same Muscle: Adaptive Removal of the Muscle Response from the Recorded EMG-Signal

Søren Sennels, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Ole Trier Andersen, Steffen Duus Hansen

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    Abstract

    In order to use the volitional electromyography (EMG) as a control signal for the stimulation of the same muscle, it is necessary to eliminate the stimulation artifacts and the muscle responses caused by the stimulation. The stimulation artifacts, caused by the electric field in skin and tissue generated by the stimulation current, are relatively easy to eliminate by shutting down the EMG-amplifier at the onset of the stimulation pulses. The muscle response is a nonstationary signal, therefore, an adaptive linear prediction filter is proposed. The filter is implemented and for three filter lengths tested on both simulated and real data. The filter performance is compared with a conventional fixed comb filter. The simulations indicate that the adaptive filter is relatively insensitive to variations in amplitude of the muscle responses, and for all filter lengths produces a good filtering. For variations in shape of the muscle responses and for real data, an increased filter performance can be achieved by increasing the filter length. Using a filter length of up to seven stimulation periods, it is possible to reduce real muscle responses to a level comparable with the background noise. Using the shut-down circuit and the adaptive filter both the stimulation artifacts and the muscle responses can be effectively eliminated from the EMG signal from a stimulated muscle. It is therefore possible to extract the volitional EMG from a partly paralyzed muscle and use it for controlling the stimulation of the same muscle
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalIEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering
    Volume5
    Issue number2
    Pages (from-to)195-206
    ISSN1063-6528
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1997

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