### Abstract

In wind energy, the effect of turbulence upon turbines is typically
simulated using wind input time series based on turbulence spectra. The
velocity components' spectra are characterized by the amplitude of turbulent
fluctuations, as well as the length scale corresponding to the dominant
eddies. Following the IEC standard, turbine load calculations commonly
involve use of the Mann spectral-tensor model to generate time series of the
turbulent three-dimensional velocity field. In practice, this spectral-tensor
model is employed by adjusting its three parameters: the dominant turbulence
length scale *L*_{MM} (peak length scale of an undistorted isotropic velocity spectrum), the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic
energy *ε*, and the turbulent eddy-lifetime (anisotropy)
parameter Γ. Deviation from ideal neutral sheared turbulence –
i.e., for non-zero heat flux and/or heights above the surface layer – is, in
effect, captured by setting these parameters according to observations.

Previously, site-specific {*L*_{MM}, *ε*, Γ} values were
obtainable through fits to measured three-dimensional velocity component
spectra recorded with sample rates resolving the inertial range of
turbulence (*≳*1 Hz); however, this is not feasible in most
industrial wind energy projects, which lack multi-dimensional sonic
anemometers and employ loggers that record measurements averaged over
intervals of minutes. Here a form is derived for the shear dependence implied
by the eddy-lifetime prescription within the Mann spectral-tensor model,
which leads to derivation of useful forms of the turbulence length scale.
Subsequently it is shown how *L*_{MM} can be calculated from
commonly measured site-specific atmospheric parameters, namely mean wind
shear (d*U*∕d*z*) and standard deviation of streamwise
fluctuations (*σ*_{u}). The derived *L*_{MM} can be obtained from standard (10 min average) cup anemometer measurements, in contrast with an earlier form based on friction velocity.

The new form is tested across several different conditions and sites, and it is found to be more robust and accurate than estimates relying on friction
velocity observations. Assumptions behind the derivations are also tested,
giving new insight into rapid-distortion theory and eddy-lifetime modeling –
and application – within the atmospheric boundary layer. The work herein
further shows that distributions of turbulence length scale, obtained using
the new form with typical measurements, compare well with distributions
*P*(*L*_{MM}) obtained by fitting to spectra from research-grade sonic anemometer measurements for the various flow regimes and sites analyzed. The new form is thus motivated by and amenable to site-specific probabilistic loads characterization.

Original language | English |
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Journal | Wind Energy Science |

Volume | 3 |

Issue number | 2 |

Pages (from-to) | 533-543 |

ISSN | 2366-7443 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2018 |

### Keywords

- Renewable energy sources
- TJ807-830