From Protein Engineering to Immobilization: Promising Strategies for the Upgrade of Industrial Enzymes

Raushan Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Tiwari, Ranjitha Singh, Jung-Kul Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Enzymes found in nature have been exploited in industry due to their inherent catalytic properties in complex chemical processes under mild experimental and environmental conditions. The desired industrial goal is often difficult to achieve using the native form of the enzyme. Recent developments in protein engineering have revolutionized the development of commercially available enzymes into better industrial catalysts. Protein engineering aims at modifying the sequence of a protein, and hence its structure, to create enzymes with improved functional properties such as stability, specific activity, inhibition by reaction products, and selectivity towards non-natural substrates. Soluble enzymes are often immobilized onto solid insoluble supports to be reused in continuous processes and to facilitate the economical recovery of the enzyme after the reaction without any significant loss to its biochemical properties. Immobilization confers considerable stability towards temperature variations and organic solvents. Multipoint and multisubunit covalent attachments of enzymes on appropriately functionalized supports via linkers provide rigidity to the immobilized enzyme structure, ultimately resulting in improved enzyme stability. Protein engineering and immobilization techniques are sequential and compatible approaches for the improvement of enzyme properties. The present review highlights and summarizes various studies that have aimed to improve the biochemical properties of industrially significant enzymes.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences (Online)
Volume14
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)1232-1277
ISSN1661-6596
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • CHEMISTRY,
  • SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS
  • MULTIPOINT COVALENT ATTACHMENT
  • GLYOXYL-AGAROSE SUPPORTS
  • PENICILLIN-G ACYLASE
  • PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA LIPASE
  • CANDIDA-RUGOSA LIPASE
  • POROUS CHITOSAN BEADS
  • ORGANIC-SOLVENTS
  • THERMAL-STABILITY
  • ALPHA-AMYLASE
  • immobilization
  • inhibition
  • protein engineering
  • selectivity
  • stability
  • alcohol dehydrogenase
  • amylase
  • beta fructofuranosidase
  • beta galactosidase
  • beta glucosidase
  • cholesterol oxidase
  • chymotrypsin
  • cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase
  • dextransucrase
  • diastase alpha amylase
  • esterase
  • formate dehydrogenase
  • glucose oxidase
  • horseradish peroxidase
  • industrial enzyme
  • keratinase
  • laccase
  • organic solvent
  • penicillin amidase
  • subtilisin
  • thermolysin
  • triacylglycerol lipase
  • unclassified drug
  • urokinase
  • amino acid sequence
  • biochemistry
  • biotechnology
  • catalysis
  • covalent bond
  • enzyme activity
  • enzyme immobilization
  • enzyme inhibition
  • enzyme kinetics
  • enzyme mechanism
  • enzyme specificity
  • enzyme stability
  • microwave irradiation
  • nonhuman
  • physical chemistry
  • protein structure
  • review
  • thermostability
  • Immobilization
  • Inhibition
  • Protein engineering
  • Selectivity
  • Stability
  • Chemistry
  • ENZYMES
  • IMMOBILIZATION
  • IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES
  • PROTEIN ENGINEERING
  • REVIEWS
  • Biotechnology
  • PROTEIN engineering

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