Mammalian cells have been used widely as biopharmaceutical cell factories due to their ability to make complex biotherapeutic proteins with human-compatible modifications. However, their application for some products has been hampered by low protein yields. Numerous studies have aimed to characterize cellular bottlenecks in the hope of boosting protein productivity, but the complexity of the underlying pathways and the diversity of the modifications have complicated cell engineering when relying solely on traditional methodologies. Incorporating omics-based and systems approaches into cell engineering can provide valuable insights into desirable phenotypes of cell factories. Here, we discuss cell engineering strategies for enhancing protein productivity in mammalian cell factories, particularly CHO and HEK293, and the opportunities and limitations of the genome-wide screening and multi-omics approaches for guiding cell engineering. Systems biology strategies will also be discussed to show how they refine our understanding of the cellular mechanisms which will aid in effective engineering strategies.