Friction stir processed Al–TiO2 surface composites: Anodising behaviour and optical appearance

Visweswara Chakravarthy Gudla, Flemming Jensen, Aude Simar, Rajashekhara Shabadi, Rajan Ambat

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    Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate TiO2(rutile) particles into the surface of an aluminium alloy. The surface composites of Al–TiO2 were then anodised in a sulphuricacid electrolyte. The effect of anodising parameters on the resulting optical appearance was investigated. Microstructural and morphological characterization was performed using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface appearance was analysed using an integrating sphere-spectrophotometer setup which measures the diffuse and total reflectance of light from the surface. Compared to samples without TiO2, surface appearance after anodising of samples with TiO2changed from dark to greyish white upon increasing the anodising voltage. This is attributed to the localized microstructural and morphological differences around the TiO2powder particles incorporated into the anodic alumina matrix. The TiO2powder particles in the FSP zone were partially or completely amorphized during the anodising process, and also electrochemically shadowed the anodising of underlying Al matrix. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalApplied Surface Science
    Pages (from-to)554–562
    Publication statusPublished - 2015


    • Aluminium
    • TiO2
    • Anodising
    • Friction Stir Processing
    • TEM
    • White


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