Friction stir processed Al - Metal oxide surface composites: Anodization and optical appearance

Visweswara Chakravarthy Gudla, Flemming Jensen, Stela Canulescu, Aude Simar, Rajan Ambat

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Multiple-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was employed to impregnate metal oxide (TiO2, Y2O3 and CeO2) particles into the surface of an Aluminium alloy. The surface composites were then anodized in a sulphuric acid electrolyte. The effect of anodizing parameters on the resulting optical appearance was studied. Microstructural and morphological characterization was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface appearance was analysed using an integrating sphere-spectrometer setup. Increasing the anodizing voltage changed the surface appearance of the composites from dark to greyish white. This is attributed to the localized microstructural and morphological differences around the metal oxide particles incorporated into the anodic alumina matrix. The metal oxide particles in the FSP zone electrochemically shadowed the underlying Al matrix and modified the local morphology of the anodic layer as well as changed the light interaction phenomenon.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSurface Modification Technologies XXVIII. Proceedings of the Twenty Eighth International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies
EditorsT.S. Sudarshan, P. Vuoristo, H. Koivuluoto
Publication date2014
ISBN (Print)978-81-926196-1-3
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Event28th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies - Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
Duration: 16 Jun 201418 Jun 2014
Conference number: 28


Conference28th International Conference on Surface Modification Technologies
LocationTampere University of Technology
Internet address


  • Aluminium
  • Friction Stir Processing
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Optical appearance
  • TiO2
  • Y2O3
  • CeO2
  • Reflectance
  • Electrochemical Finishing
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy
  • Composites
  • Decorative Anodizing
  • Sulphuric Acid
  • Focused Ion Beam


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