Frequency Response Methods for Grid-Connected Wind Power Generations: A Review

Haixin Wang, Haiwan He, Zihao Yang, Gen Li, Zhe Chen, Junyou Yang*, Guanfeng Zhang, Henan Dong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewpeer-review


The increasing penetration of wind power leads to a decrease in the proportion of synchronous generators, which weakens the frequency response (FR) ability of the power grid. Wind turbines (WTs) are used to enhance the frequency stability of the power grid, which has become an important research trend. This paper compares and analyzes the pros and cons, and applications of various FR methods of WTs. The power allocation and coordination methods of wind farm perspectives are summarized. New ideas of FR brought by the energy storage system, virtual synchronous generator, and machine learning algorithms are presented. Furthermore, the development directions of FR methods from the views of source-to-source and vehicle-to-grid coordination methods are discussed. In addition, the FR demonstration application and test are carried out on the wind farm. Furthermore, the economy and feasibility of wind power participating in the FR auxiliary service market are discussed. Finally, popular emerging topics that need further to be considered in wind power FR research are prospected.
Original languageEnglish
Article number109396
JournalElectric Power Systems Research
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Wind power
  • Frequency response
  • Frequency stability
  • Inertia
  • Droop control
  • Energy storage system
  • Coordination method


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