Fast frequency response from wind turbines and plants has been playing an increasingly important role in our modern power system, which has a large share of wind energy integration. Frequency control from grid-following wind turbines and plants has been extensively investigated in the literature, whereas grid-forming frequency control methods have aroused people’s attention in recent years, with relatively little comparison available. This paper provides such a comparison, illustrating the differences between the two methods of providing frequency support in a power system. The comparison shows the superiority of grid-forming frequency control methods over grid-following ones, and gives a glance into power system frequency stability in the transition from grid-following to grid-forming frequency support supplied by wind power. The results are elaborated in a benchmark WSCC 9-bus system, which features detailed electromagnetic transient modeling of the components from a single converter, a wind turbine, and a wind plant to the whole power system.
- Grid-forming control
- Virtual synchronous machine control
- Grid-following control
- Fast frequency response
- Wind power integration