Frequency Control in Power Systems with Large Share of Wind Energy

Liang Lu*, Oscar Saborío-Romano, Nicolaos A. Cutululis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Fast frequency response from wind turbines and plants has been playing an increasingly important role in our modern power system, which has a large share of wind energy integration. Frequency control from grid-following wind turbines and plants has been extensively investigated in the literature, whereas grid-forming frequency control methods have aroused people’s attention in recent years, with relatively little comparison available. This paper provides such a comparison, illustrating the differences between the two methods of providing frequency support in a power system. The comparison shows the superiority of grid-forming frequency control methods over grid-following ones, and gives a glance into power system frequency stability in the transition from grid-following to grid-forming frequency support supplied by wind power. The results are elaborated in a benchmark WSCC 9-bus system, which features detailed electromagnetic transient modeling of the components from a single converter, a wind turbine, and a wind plant to the whole power system.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1922
Issue number5
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Grid-forming control
  • Virtual synchronous machine control
  • Grid-following control
  • Fast frequency response
  • Wind power integration


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