Frequency and Voltage Compliance Capabilities of Grid-Forming Wind Turbines in Offshore Wind Farms in Weak AC Grids †

Benjamin Vilmann*, Peter Jan Randewijk, Hjörtur Jóhannsson, Jesper Hjerrild, Ashraf Khalil

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Weak grid conditions challenge the grid integration of offshore wind farms. Especially grids with low inertia and large grid impedance questions frequency and voltage compliance capabilities. Grid-forming wind turbines are a promising technology for weak grids due to the nature of their control strategy. This paper explains the difference in how weak grid conditions are described in the literature and shows how the voltage stability margin changes with the short-circuit ratio and X/R ratio. With that knowledge, the frequency and voltage compliance capabilities of three grid-forming controls in an offshore wind farm are investigated and benchmarked. These three controls are a droop control, a virtual synchronous machine, and a synchronverter. This was done by quantifying their performance during a frequency disturbance with sensitivity to the short-circuit ratio, X/R ratio, and the inertia constant, H. It is concluded that the virtual synchronous machine is the most compliant grid-forming control and that DC-link modeling is of great importance when testing compliance during frequency disturbances.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1114
JournalElectronics
Volume12
Issue number5
Number of pages24
ISSN2079-9292
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Frequency stability
  • Grid-forming
  • Weak grid
  • Voltage stability
  • Droop control
  • PV-curves
  • Synchronverter
  • Virtual synchronous machine
  • Offshore wind farm

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