Freeform injection molding of functional ceramics by hybrid additive manufacturing

Kyriakos Didilis*, Debora Marani, Uffe Bihlet, Astri Bjørnetun Haugen, Vincenzo Esposito*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Freeform Injection Molding (FIM) is a hybrid manufacturing approach where 3D-printed sacrificial polymeric molds are used for Ceramic Injection Molding (CIM). This technique offers great additive manufacturing capabilities with shape complexity and material versatility. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of the ability of FIM to process a variety of ceramic feedstocks and evaluate samples of different geometries with increasing geometrical complexity. The materials selected are zirconia, alumina and Pb-free piezoelectrics (BaTiO3 and (Bi, Na)TiO3 – BaTiO3). Injection molding simulations are used to optimize the processing parameters. The quality of the fabricated ceramic parts is assessed by the microstructure, macro-defects, the geometrical features of the structural ceramics and the piezoelectric performance of BaTiO3 and (Bi, Na)TiO3 – BaTiO3. The effect of green- and sintered-density, linear shrinkage (associated with sintering), and shape distortion are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103197
JournalAdditive Manufacturing
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Additive Manufacturing
  • Digital Light Processing
  • Ceramic Injection Molding
  • Functional Ceramics
  • Freeform Geometries
  • Piezoceramics


Dive into the research topics of 'Freeform injection molding of functional ceramics by hybrid additive manufacturing'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this