Enzymatic conversion of micropollutants into less-toxic derivatives is an important bioremediation strategy. This paper aims to critically review the progress in water and wastewater treatment by both free and immobilized enzymes presenting this approach as highly efficient and performed under environmentally benign and friendly conditions. The review also summarises the effects of inorganic and organic wastewater matrix constituents on enzymatic activity and degradation efficiency of micropollutants. Finally, application of enzymatic reactors facilitate continuous treatment of wastewater and obtaining of pure final effluents. Of a particular note, enzymatic treatment of micropollutants from wastewater has been mostly reported by laboratory scale studies. Thus, this review also highlights key research gaps of the existing techniques and provides future perspectives to facilitate the transfer of the lab-scale solutions to a larger scale and to improve operationability of biodegradation processes.
- Enzymatic Bioreactor
- Immobilized enzyme