Formation of Sclerotia and Production of Indoloterpenes by Aspergillus niger and Other Species in Section Nigri

Jens Christian Frisvad, Lene Maj Petersen, Ellen Kirstine Lyhne, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen

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    Abstract

    Several species in Aspergillus section Nigri have been reported to produce sclerotia on well-known growth media, such as Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar, with sclerotia considered to be an important prerequisite for sexual development. However Aspergillus niger sensu stricto has not been reported to produce sclerotia, and is thought to be a purely asexual organism. Here we report, for the first time, the production of sclerotia by certain strains of Aspergillus niger when grown on CYA agar with raisins, or on other fruits or on rice. Up to 11 apolar indoloterpenes of the aflavinine type were detected by liquid chromatography and diode array and mass spectrometric detection where sclerotia were formed, including 10,23dihydro-24,25-dehydroaflavinine. Sclerotium induction can thus be a way of inducing the production of new secondary metabolites from previously silent gene clusters. Cultivation of other species of the black aspergilli showed that raisins induced sclerotium formation by A. brasiliensis, A. floridensis A. ibericus, A. luchuensis, A. neoniger, A. trinidadensis and A. saccharolyticus for the first time.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere94857
    JournalPLOS ONE
    Volume9
    Issue number4
    Number of pages11
    ISSN1932-6203
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

    Bibliographical note

    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Keywords

    • fruit
    • sclerotia formation
    • Fungi Plantae (Fungi, Microorganisms, Nonvascular Plants, Plants) - Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes [15500] Nigri section Aspergillus brasiliensis species Aspergillus ibericus species Aspergillus luchuensis species Penicillium rubens species Aspergillus saccharolyticus species Aspergillus niger species sensu stricto Aspergillus floridensis species Aspergillus neoniger species Aspergillus trinidadensis species Aspergillus aculeatus species strain-IBT 21030 Aspergillus welwitchiae species
    • Monocotyledones Angiospermae Spermatophyta Plantae (Angiosperms, Monocots, Plants, Spermatophytes, Vascular Plants) - Gramineae [25305] rice common
    • CYA agar
    • dihydro-24,25-dehydroaflavinine
    • gene cluster
    • raisin
    • 03502, Genetics - General
    • 03504, Genetics - Plant
    • Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics
    • diode array detection laboratory techniques
    • liquid chromatography laboratory techniques, chromatographic techniques
    • mass spectrometry laboratory techniques, spectrum analysis techniques
    • Molecular Genetics
    • MULTIDISCIPLINARY
    • THAI COFFEE BEANS
    • SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
    • FUMONISIN B-2
    • ANTIINSECTAN METABOLITE
    • CRYPTIC SEXUALITY
    • TUBINGENSIN-A
    • OCHRATOXIN
    • MYCOTOXINS
    • GROWTH
    • FUNGI

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