Formation and reduction of NOx in pressurized fluidized bed combustion of coal

Anker Jensen, Jan Erik Johnsson, Jans Andries, Karen Laughlin, Graham Read, Michael Mayer, Herbert Baumann, Bernhard Bonn

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


This paper described an experimental and modelling study of NOx formation and reduction in pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) of coal. The aim was to evaluate the Thermal DeNOx process with NH3 injection and staged combustion in PFBC as measures for the reduction of NOx emissions, and to develop a mathematical model for the emission of NOx. Experiments with NH3 injection and staged combustion in a 1.6 MW PFBC test rig burning bituminous coal showed that both methods were able to reduce the emission of NOx by 50–70% under optimum conditions. Laboratory experiments were performed to elucidate the nitrogen chemistry under PFBC conditions and were used as input to the model. These experiments included an investigation of the release of nitrogen during devolatilization of coal and a kinetic study of important reactions for NOx formation and reduction catalyzed by char and bed material sampled from the test rig. The model is based on the two-phase theory of the bed and includes coal devolatilization, combustion of char and volatile matter, and NOx formation and reduction by homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. The NOx emissions calculated with the model are in qualitative agreement with the emissions from the 1.6 MW test rig.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number11
Pages (from-to)1555-1569
Publication statusPublished - 1995


  • Fluidized bed combustion
  • NOx emission
  • Mathematical modelling


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