Forkcipher: a New Primitive for Authenticated Encryption of Very Short Messages

Elena Andreeva, Virginie Lallemand, Antoon Purnal, Reza Reyhanitabar, Damian Vizar

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Abstract

Highly efficient encryption and authentication of short messages is an essential requirement for enabling security in constrained scenarios such as the CAN FD in automotive systems (max. message size 64 bytes), massive IoT, critical communication domains of 5G, and Narrowband IoT, to mention a few. In addition, one of the NIST lightweight cryptography project requirements is that AEAD schemes shall be “optimized to be efficient for short messages (e.g., as short as 8 bytes)”.
In this work we introduce and formalize a novel primitive in symmetric cryptography called a forkcipher. A forkcipher is a keyed function expanding a fixed-length input to a fixed-length output. We define its security as indistinguishability under chosen ciphertext attack. We give a generic construction validation via the new iterate-fork-iterate design paradigm. We then propose ForkSkinny as a concrete forkcipher instance with a public tweak and based on SKINNY: a tweakable lightweight block cipher constructed using the TWEAKEY framework. We conduct extensive cryptanalysis of ForkSkinny against classical and structurespecific attacks.
We demonstrate the applicability of forkciphers by designing three new provably-secure, nonce-based AEAD modes which offer performance and security tradeoffs and are optimized for efficiency of very short messages. Considering a reference block size of 16 bytes, and ignoring possible hardware optimizations, our new AEAD schemes beat the best SKINNY-based AEAD modes. More generally, we show forkciphers are suited for lightweight applications dealing with predominantly short messages, while at the same time allowing handling arbitrary messages sizes. Furthermore, our hardware implementation results show that when we exploit the inherent parallelism of ForkSkinny we achieve the best performance when directly compared with the most efficient mode instantiated with the SKINNY block cipher.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of 25th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security
PublisherSpringer
Publication date2019
Pages153-182
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-34620-1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event25th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security - Kobe Portopia Hotel, Kobe, Japan
Duration: 8 Dec 201912 Dec 2019

Conference

Conference25th Annual International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security
LocationKobe Portopia Hotel
CountryJapan
CityKobe
Period08/12/201912/12/2019
SeriesLecture Notes in Computer Science
Volume11922
ISSN0302-9743

Keywords

  • Authenticated encryption
  • New primitive
  • Forkcipher
  • ForkSkinny
  • Lightweight cryptography
  • Short messages

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