Forensic aspects of gene expression signatures for age determination in bruises as evaluated in an experimental porcine model

Kristiane Barington, Henrik Elvang Jensen, Kerstin Skovgaard

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


    Determining the age of bruises and the force used to inflict the trauma is of crucial importance in both human and veterinary forensic pathology. In the present study, the expression of more than 50 different genes in subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue from experimental bruises in pigs was investigated. The aim was to evaluate if expression signatures of selected genes were capable of determining bruises according to age and the force of impact. Eighteen experimental pigs were anesthetized, and on each animal four blunt traumas were inflicted on the back with a low, moderate or high force. The pigs were euthanized from 1 to 10 h after infliction of the trauma and subcutaneous fat and muscle tissues were sampled. As control, subcutaneous fat and muscle tissues were sampled from two un-injured pigs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation, tissue damage and repair. Expression signatures of thirteen selected genes in subcutaneous fat but not in muscle tissue reflected the age of bruises with a precision of approximately ±2 h. Moreover, the gene expression signature in the subcutaneous fat was to some extend able to separate bruises inflicted with different forces. Expression signatures of selected genes in the subcutaneous fat will increase the precision of the age determination of bruises in pigs. Further, due to the similarity of porcine and human skin physiology and immunity, these results might also provide valuable information in human forensic science.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalForensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
    Issue number2
    Pages (from-to)151-160
    Publication statusPublished - 2017


    • Age estimation
    • Bruise
    • Force estimation
    • Gene expression signature
    • qPCR


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