Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae, is a pathogen of cloven-hoofed animals and causes a disease of major economic importance. Picornavirus-infected cells show changes in cell morphology and rearrangement of cytoplasmic membranes, which are a consequence of virus replication. We show here, by confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, that the changes in morphology of FMDV-infected cells involve changes in the distribution of microtubule and intermediate filament components during infection. Despite the continued presence of centrosomes in infected cells, there is a loss of tethering of microtubules to the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) region. Loss of labeling for -tubulin, but not pericentrin, from the MTOC suggests a targeting of -tubulin (or associated proteins) rather than a total breakdown in MTOC structure. The identity of the FMDV protein(s) responsible was determined by the expression of individual viral nonstructural proteins and their precursors in uninfected cells. We report that the only viral nonstructural protein able to reproduce the loss of -tubulin from the MTOC and the loss of integrity of the microtubule system is FMDV 3Cpro. In contrast, infection of cells with another picornavirus, bovine enterovirus, did not affect -tubulin distribution, and the microtubule network remained relatively unaffected.