This review initially summarizes the mechanisms, merits and limitations of the three controlled radical polymerizations: nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) or metal catalyzed living radical polymerization, and reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. This is followed by two parts, one dealing with homo- and copolymerizations of fluorinated methacrylates and acrylates, and a second where fluorinated styrenes, alone or in combination with other monomers, are the main issues. In these parts, initiators (including multifunctional and macroinitiators), ligands and other reaction conditions as well as some kinetics and conversions are discussed. Numerous possibilities for preparation of a variety of different block copolymers where one or more blocks are fluorinated are devoted particular attention. The advantageous properties and functionalities that can be obtained from these novel fluorinated materials and architectures are especially emphasized. Thus, various amphiphilic, biocompatible or low energy materials, fluorinated nanoparticles and nanoporous films/membranes as well as materials for submicron and nanolevel electronics have been fabricated. In addition, the possible fluorination of various surfaces through surface initiation is highlighted. A final part deals with the use of fluorine containing initiators and macroinitiators, and the applications on the novel materials derived thereof.
- Surface initiated polymerization
- Amphiphilic polymers
- Fluorinated monomers
- Fluorinated (co)polymated monomers