Flexibility of U.S. campus district energy systems in the electricity grid

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U.S. state targets on clean energy has accelerated in amounts and ambitions within the last few years. This is expected to bring increased amounts of variable renewable energy into the U.S. energy system, subsequently leading to a need for flexible assets in the electricity grid. District energy systems have a proven ability to contribute to renewable energy integration and is thus a relevant sector include the energy system transition. District energy systems are often deployed at university campuses, which increasingly also
demonstrate ambitious targets regarding energy and climate. Since flexibility in the interface between district energy and the electricity system can be hindered, I explore the barriers to such flexibility using a taxonomy developed for the purpose. The results show that the taxonomy is useful for identifying barriers, among which limitation in generating to the electric grid is among the most prominent. Flexibility in consumption is more widely applied.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - 2020


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