First injera baking biomass gasifier stove to reduce indoor air pollution, and fuel use

Kamil Dino Adem*, Demiss Alemu Ambie, Maria Puig Arnavat, Ulrik Birk Henriksen, Jesper Ahrenfeldt, Tobias Pape Thomsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Nearly 40% of the world population use biomass as their primary energy source, especially for cooking; but traditional and inefficient three-stone fires cause serious health issues and
their high fuel consumption leads to deforestation problems. Ethiopian cuisine is mainly based on vegetable and meat dishes in the form of a thick stew, served on top of injera, a large sourdough flatbread made out of fermented teff flour. Injera is known for its energy intensive and time consuming baking. It has remained rarely researched for alternative energy sources, although some improved biomass firing stoves have been introduced in the Ethiopian market. Thus, there is a need for a new efficient and clean stove that can drastically reduce the fuel consumption, emissions and indoor air pollution. In the present manuscript, the first injera biomass gasification baking stove is presented and its performance reported. A thermal efficiency of 16% is achieved, the specific fuel consumption is reduced by 12.8% , and baking time reduced by 19% compared with the three-stone fire. CO (Carbon Monoxide) and PM (Particulate matter) emissions are reduced, compared to the three-stone fire, by 99% and 87%, respectively. Heat losses and stored heat in the system are also calculated. Results show that it is possible to increase the efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption if the insulation is improved, the heating up time between consecutive baked injeras reduced and longer injera baking sessions, like in community kitchens, promoted. This first successful attempt to bake injera using a biomass gasifier stove in the eastern part of Africa shows promising result and can lead to an efficient and clean biomass gasifier stove that could be widely disseminated for injera baking.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAims Energy
Volume7
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)227–245
ISSN2333-8334
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Keywords

  • Injera baking stove
  • Gasifier cooking stov
  • Biomass
  • Indoor air pollution
  • Emissions reduction

Cite this

Dino Adem, Kamil ; Alemu Ambie, Demiss ; Puig Arnavat, Maria ; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk ; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper ; Thomsen, Tobias Pape. / First injera baking biomass gasifier stove to reduce indoor air pollution, and fuel use. In: Aims Energy. 2019 ; Vol. 7, No. 2. pp. 227–245.
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title = "First injera baking biomass gasifier stove to reduce indoor air pollution, and fuel use",
abstract = "Nearly 40{\%} of the world population use biomass as their primary energy source, especially for cooking; but traditional and inefficient three-stone fires cause serious health issues andtheir high fuel consumption leads to deforestation problems. Ethiopian cuisine is mainly based on vegetable and meat dishes in the form of a thick stew, served on top of injera, a large sourdough flatbread made out of fermented teff flour. Injera is known for its energy intensive and time consuming baking. It has remained rarely researched for alternative energy sources, although some improved biomass firing stoves have been introduced in the Ethiopian market. Thus, there is a need for a new efficient and clean stove that can drastically reduce the fuel consumption, emissions and indoor air pollution. In the present manuscript, the first injera biomass gasification baking stove is presented and its performance reported. A thermal efficiency of 16{\%} is achieved, the specific fuel consumption is reduced by 12.8{\%} , and baking time reduced by 19{\%} compared with the three-stone fire. CO (Carbon Monoxide) and PM (Particulate matter) emissions are reduced, compared to the three-stone fire, by 99{\%} and 87{\%}, respectively. Heat losses and stored heat in the system are also calculated. Results show that it is possible to increase the efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption if the insulation is improved, the heating up time between consecutive baked injeras reduced and longer injera baking sessions, like in community kitchens, promoted. This first successful attempt to bake injera using a biomass gasifier stove in the eastern part of Africa shows promising result and can lead to an efficient and clean biomass gasifier stove that could be widely disseminated for injera baking.",
keywords = "Injera baking stove, Gasifier cooking stov, Biomass, Indoor air pollution, Emissions reduction",
author = "{Dino Adem}, Kamil and {Alemu Ambie}, Demiss and {Puig Arnavat}, Maria and Henriksen, {Ulrik Birk} and Jesper Ahrenfeldt and Thomsen, {Tobias Pape}",
note = "{\circledC} 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)",
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doi = "10.3934/energy.2019.2.227",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
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First injera baking biomass gasifier stove to reduce indoor air pollution, and fuel use. / Dino Adem, Kamil ; Alemu Ambie, Demiss ; Puig Arnavat, Maria; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias Pape.

In: Aims Energy, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2019, p. 227–245.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - First injera baking biomass gasifier stove to reduce indoor air pollution, and fuel use

AU - Dino Adem, Kamil

AU - Alemu Ambie, Demiss

AU - Puig Arnavat, Maria

AU - Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

AU - Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

AU - Thomsen, Tobias Pape

N1 - © 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Nearly 40% of the world population use biomass as their primary energy source, especially for cooking; but traditional and inefficient three-stone fires cause serious health issues andtheir high fuel consumption leads to deforestation problems. Ethiopian cuisine is mainly based on vegetable and meat dishes in the form of a thick stew, served on top of injera, a large sourdough flatbread made out of fermented teff flour. Injera is known for its energy intensive and time consuming baking. It has remained rarely researched for alternative energy sources, although some improved biomass firing stoves have been introduced in the Ethiopian market. Thus, there is a need for a new efficient and clean stove that can drastically reduce the fuel consumption, emissions and indoor air pollution. In the present manuscript, the first injera biomass gasification baking stove is presented and its performance reported. A thermal efficiency of 16% is achieved, the specific fuel consumption is reduced by 12.8% , and baking time reduced by 19% compared with the three-stone fire. CO (Carbon Monoxide) and PM (Particulate matter) emissions are reduced, compared to the three-stone fire, by 99% and 87%, respectively. Heat losses and stored heat in the system are also calculated. Results show that it is possible to increase the efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption if the insulation is improved, the heating up time between consecutive baked injeras reduced and longer injera baking sessions, like in community kitchens, promoted. This first successful attempt to bake injera using a biomass gasifier stove in the eastern part of Africa shows promising result and can lead to an efficient and clean biomass gasifier stove that could be widely disseminated for injera baking.

AB - Nearly 40% of the world population use biomass as their primary energy source, especially for cooking; but traditional and inefficient three-stone fires cause serious health issues andtheir high fuel consumption leads to deforestation problems. Ethiopian cuisine is mainly based on vegetable and meat dishes in the form of a thick stew, served on top of injera, a large sourdough flatbread made out of fermented teff flour. Injera is known for its energy intensive and time consuming baking. It has remained rarely researched for alternative energy sources, although some improved biomass firing stoves have been introduced in the Ethiopian market. Thus, there is a need for a new efficient and clean stove that can drastically reduce the fuel consumption, emissions and indoor air pollution. In the present manuscript, the first injera biomass gasification baking stove is presented and its performance reported. A thermal efficiency of 16% is achieved, the specific fuel consumption is reduced by 12.8% , and baking time reduced by 19% compared with the three-stone fire. CO (Carbon Monoxide) and PM (Particulate matter) emissions are reduced, compared to the three-stone fire, by 99% and 87%, respectively. Heat losses and stored heat in the system are also calculated. Results show that it is possible to increase the efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption if the insulation is improved, the heating up time between consecutive baked injeras reduced and longer injera baking sessions, like in community kitchens, promoted. This first successful attempt to bake injera using a biomass gasifier stove in the eastern part of Africa shows promising result and can lead to an efficient and clean biomass gasifier stove that could be widely disseminated for injera baking.

KW - Injera baking stove

KW - Gasifier cooking stov

KW - Biomass

KW - Indoor air pollution

KW - Emissions reduction

U2 - 10.3934/energy.2019.2.227

DO - 10.3934/energy.2019.2.227

M3 - Journal article

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JO - Aims Energy

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SN - 2333-8334

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