First flush of dissolved compounds

P. Krebs, P. Holzer, J.L. Huisman, W. Rauch

    Research output: Contribution to journalConference articleResearchpeer-review


    In a crude conceptual approach it is commonly assumed that in a combined sewer system the concentration of dissolved compounds is diluted by an increasing flow rate due to rainwater inflow. However, theory of hydraulics suggests that these compounds are influenced by hydrodynamic effects. It is known that since the wave celerity is higher than the flow velocity of the water, the increase of flow rate induced through rain runoff is recognised earlier at a certain downstream section of the combined sewer than the concentration increase of typical rain-water compounds originating from surface wash-off. This description implies that the wave front is formed from the fluid that was present in the sewer before the Bow rare increased, that is the sewage! By means of measurements and numerical simulations, it is shown that this effect may cause a significant impact of dissolved compounds on the receiving water, when a combined sewer overflow occurs, and also on the wastewater treatment plant when the sewer network is flat and catchment area is big. (C) 1999 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of the IAWQ. All rights reserved.
    Original languageEnglish
    JournalWater Science and Technology
    Issue number9
    Pages (from-to)55-62
    Publication statusPublished - 1999
    Event4th International Conference on Developments in Urban Drainage Modelling - London, United Kingdom
    Duration: 21 Sep 199824 Sep 1998
    Conference number: 4


    Conference4th International Conference on Developments in Urban Drainage Modelling
    CountryUnited Kingdom


    • combined sewer overflow (CSO)
    • combined water tank
    • dissolved compounds
    • first flush
    • sewage retention tank
    • transport mechanisms
    • wave celerity

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