We investigate the physics of planar annular Josephson tunnel junctions quenched through their transition temperature in the presence of an external magnetic field. Experiments carried out with long Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb annular junctions showed that the magnetic flux trapped in the high-quality doubly-connected superconducting electrodes forming the junction generates a persistent current whose associated magnetic field affects the both the static and dynamics properties of the junctions. More specifically, the field trapped in the hole of one electrode combined with a d.c. bias current induces a viscous flow of dense trains of Josephson vortices which manifests itself through the sequential appearance of displaced linear slopes, Fiske step staircases and Eck steps in the junction’s current-voltage characteristic. Furthermore, a field shift is observed in the first lobe of the magnetic diffraction pattern. The effects of the persistent current can be mitigated or even canceled by an external magnetic field perpendicular to the junction plane. The radial field associated with the persistent current can be accurately modeled with the classical phenomenological sine-Gordon model for extended one-dimensional Josephson junctions. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out to disclose the basic flux-flow mechanism responsible for the appearance of the magnetically induced steps and to elucidate the role of geometrical parameters. It was found that the imprint of the field cooling is enhanced in confocal annular junctions which are the natural generalization of the well studied circular annular junctions.
- Josephson junctions
- Superconducting phase transition
- Vortex flows
- Nonlinear dynamics