Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux

Marja Koski, Julia Boutorh, Christina L. De La Rocha

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Abstract

Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of metabolic rates. We fed 5 copepod species-three calanoid, one harpacticoid and one poecilamastoid-microplankton food, in either dispersed or aggregated form and measured rates of respiration, fecal pellet production and egg production. Calanoid copepods were able to feed only on dispersed food; when their food was introduced as aggregates, their pellet production and respiration rates decreased to rates observed for starved individuals. In contrast, harpacticoids and the poecilamastoid copepod Oncaea spp. were able to feed only when the food was in the form of aggregates. The sum of copepod respiration, pellet production and egg production rates was equivalent to a daily minimum carbon demand of ca. 10% body weight-(1) for all non-feeding copepods; the carbon demand of calanoids feeding on dispersed food was 2-3 times greater, and the carbon demand of harpacticoids and Oncaea spp. feeding on aggregates was >7 times greater, than the resting rates. The zooplankton species composition combined with the type of available food strongly influences the calculated carbon demand of a copepod community, and thus also the attenuation of vertical carbon flux.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0177958
JournalP L o S One
Volume12
Issue number5
ISSN1932-6203
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • MULTIDISCIPLINARY
  • COPEPOD ACARTIA-TONSA
  • OCEANS TWILIGHT ZONE
  • SUB-ARCTIC PACIFIC
  • MARINE SNOW
  • FECAL PELLETS
  • PLANKTONIC COPEPOD
  • RESPIRATION RATES
  • NORTHEAST PACIFIC
  • CALANOID COPEPODS
  • SEASONAL PATTERNS

Cite this

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title = "Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux",
abstract = "Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of metabolic rates. We fed 5 copepod species-three calanoid, one harpacticoid and one poecilamastoid-microplankton food, in either dispersed or aggregated form and measured rates of respiration, fecal pellet production and egg production. Calanoid copepods were able to feed only on dispersed food; when their food was introduced as aggregates, their pellet production and respiration rates decreased to rates observed for starved individuals. In contrast, harpacticoids and the poecilamastoid copepod Oncaea spp. were able to feed only when the food was in the form of aggregates. The sum of copepod respiration, pellet production and egg production rates was equivalent to a daily minimum carbon demand of ca. 10{\%} body weight-(1) for all non-feeding copepods; the carbon demand of calanoids feeding on dispersed food was 2-3 times greater, and the carbon demand of harpacticoids and Oncaea spp. feeding on aggregates was >7 times greater, than the resting rates. The zooplankton species composition combined with the type of available food strongly influences the calculated carbon demand of a copepod community, and thus also the attenuation of vertical carbon flux.",
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author = "Marja Koski and Julia Boutorh and {De La Rocha}, {Christina L.}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0177958",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "P L o S One",
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Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux. / Koski, Marja; Boutorh, Julia; De La Rocha, Christina L.

In: P L o S One, Vol. 12, No. 5, e0177958, 2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux

AU - Koski, Marja

AU - Boutorh, Julia

AU - De La Rocha, Christina L.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of metabolic rates. We fed 5 copepod species-three calanoid, one harpacticoid and one poecilamastoid-microplankton food, in either dispersed or aggregated form and measured rates of respiration, fecal pellet production and egg production. Calanoid copepods were able to feed only on dispersed food; when their food was introduced as aggregates, their pellet production and respiration rates decreased to rates observed for starved individuals. In contrast, harpacticoids and the poecilamastoid copepod Oncaea spp. were able to feed only when the food was in the form of aggregates. The sum of copepod respiration, pellet production and egg production rates was equivalent to a daily minimum carbon demand of ca. 10% body weight-(1) for all non-feeding copepods; the carbon demand of calanoids feeding on dispersed food was 2-3 times greater, and the carbon demand of harpacticoids and Oncaea spp. feeding on aggregates was >7 times greater, than the resting rates. The zooplankton species composition combined with the type of available food strongly influences the calculated carbon demand of a copepod community, and thus also the attenuation of vertical carbon flux.

AB - Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of metabolic rates. We fed 5 copepod species-three calanoid, one harpacticoid and one poecilamastoid-microplankton food, in either dispersed or aggregated form and measured rates of respiration, fecal pellet production and egg production. Calanoid copepods were able to feed only on dispersed food; when their food was introduced as aggregates, their pellet production and respiration rates decreased to rates observed for starved individuals. In contrast, harpacticoids and the poecilamastoid copepod Oncaea spp. were able to feed only when the food was in the form of aggregates. The sum of copepod respiration, pellet production and egg production rates was equivalent to a daily minimum carbon demand of ca. 10% body weight-(1) for all non-feeding copepods; the carbon demand of calanoids feeding on dispersed food was 2-3 times greater, and the carbon demand of harpacticoids and Oncaea spp. feeding on aggregates was >7 times greater, than the resting rates. The zooplankton species composition combined with the type of available food strongly influences the calculated carbon demand of a copepod community, and thus also the attenuation of vertical carbon flux.

KW - MULTIDISCIPLINARY

KW - COPEPOD ACARTIA-TONSA

KW - OCEANS TWILIGHT ZONE

KW - SUB-ARCTIC PACIFIC

KW - MARINE SNOW

KW - FECAL PELLETS

KW - PLANKTONIC COPEPOD

KW - RESPIRATION RATES

KW - NORTHEAST PACIFIC

KW - CALANOID COPEPODS

KW - SEASONAL PATTERNS

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0177958

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0177958

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 28545095

VL - 12

JO - P L o S One

JF - P L o S One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 5

M1 - e0177958

ER -