Fate of Carbamazepine during Water Treatment

T. Kosjek, Henrik Rasmus Andersen, Boris Kompare, Anna Ledin, E. Heath

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Seven transformation products of carbamazepine generated by at least one of three common water treatment technologies (W-radiation, oxidation with chlorine dioxide (ClO2), and biological treatment with activated Sludge) were identified by complementary use of ion trap, single quadrupole, and quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Acridine was formed during all of the three treatment processes, while acridine 9-carbaldehyde was identified as an intermediate during ClO2 oxidation. Further treatment of acridine with ClO2 produced 9-hydroxy-acridine, UV-treatment resulted in the formation of acridone, hydroxy-(9H,10H)-acridine-9-carbaldehyde, acridone-N-carbaldehyde, and 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-(1H,3H-quinazoline-2,4-dione, while biological breakdown of acridine yielded acridone. In parallel, the transformation product iminostilbene was observed during sample analysis. In addition,this study compared the treatment technologies according to the removal of carbamazepine and the production and decay of its transformation products. The most successful method for the removal of carbamazepine was UV treatment, while acridine and acridone were more susceptible to biological treatment. Therefore, based on the enhanced biodegradability of carbamazepine residues achieved by UV irradiation, we propose a coupled treatment technology involving an initial UV treatment step followed by biological treatment, which may satisfactorily remove the parent compound and its transformation products.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology (Washington)
Issue number16
Pages (from-to)6256-6261
Publication statusPublished - 2009


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